[NEW] 950 Names and Titles of our God (God’s biblical names) | x god – Vietnamnhanvan

x god: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

    Article Version: June 11, 2021

    NOTE: There is only ONE God, but, in some way beyond human comprehension, He also consists of three distinct persons:
    • The Father
    • The Son (The Messiah, Jesus Christ)
    • The Holy Spirit.
    See: TRINITY article about the triune nature of God

  1. Abba —transliteration of the Greek:

    Ἀββᾶ

    Meaning: Father
    Aramaic transliteration:

    Abbā

    —meaning: Daddy

    Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6

  2. or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אָב

    Meaning: Father

    Psalm 68:5; Malachi 2:10

  3. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אֲבִיעַ֖ד

    Meaning: “Eternal Father

    Isaiah 9:6 NASB

  4. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אָבִ֔ינוּ

    Meaning: “Our Father

    Isaiah 63:16 KJV, etc.

  5. or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אביר

    Meaning: “The Mighty One”

  6. AdamHebrew:

    הָֽאָדָ֜ם

    The Last Adam or The Second Adam.

    The 2nd Person of the Divine Trinity is calledor

    1 Corinthians 15:45 KJV; Romans 5:12-21 KJV

    Greek:

    ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδάμ

    —transliteration: (meaning: Last Adam)

  7. Adonai —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אֲדֹנָי

    (A-D-N)
    Meaning: My LORD (a substitute for “YHWH” in Judaism)
    Greek:

    Κύριος

    —transliteration:

  8. —adapation and transliteration from Hebrew

    Amos 4:13 CJB, TLV
    “The Lord, The God of
    The Lord God of hosts” —NKJV, NASB, WYC
    “The Lord God Almighty” —NIV
    “Yahweh Elohe Tsebaoth” —NOG

    Amos 4:13 CJB, TLV“The Lord, The God of hosts ” —Amos 4:13 KJV” —NKJV, NASB, WYC“The Lord God Almighty” —NIV“Yahweh Elohe Tsebaoth” —NOG

  9. Advocate

    “Our Advocate” and “

    “Our Advocate” and “ Advocate with the Father

    God the Son (

    God the Son ( Jesus Christ ) who is an advocate to the Father for His regenerate followers

    1 John 2:1-2a NASB—“My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not Advocate with the Father, Jesus

    1 John 2:1-2a NASB—“My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin . And if anyone sins , we have an Christ the righteous ; and He Himself is the propitiation for our sins…”

  10. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אֹכְלָ֖ה ה֑וּא

    Meaning: “A Consuming Fire

    Deuteronomy 4:24 KJV; Exodus 15:7 KJV; Exo. 24:17 KJV

  11. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “Chief Cornerstone

    Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6

  12. —a contraction of the word or (meaning “the god”) —contraction variations: and
    The name “Allah” does not belong to Islam; it was used by Jews, Arabic peoples and Christians long BEFORE the existence of Islam. The word “Allah” does not appear in the Hebrew or Greek Scriptures of the Old or New Testament, however neither does the word “god.”
    Compare to Hebrew el (god) and elah (or el ah) (meaning god) and eloah (god)
    Arabic:

    الله

    Aramaic transliteration: and (emphatic)

    Almost all Western Christians avoid using this word for the Supreme Being, as, in their culture, it is too strongly associated with Islam—and Christians and Muslims do not really worship the same god and the two religions are radically different in many crucial ways. So, while the god of Muslims is clearly a divergence from the One True God revealed in the Old and New Testament, why do many Arab CHRISTIANS and some Jews continue to refer to God as “Allah”? Answer

  13. The Almighty

    2 Corinthians 6:18 KJV; Rev. 1:8 KJV; Rev. 19:6 KJV; Nicene Creed
    God is Almighty because he is

    2 Corinthians 6:18 KJV; Rev. 1:8 KJV; Rev. 19:6 KJV; Nicene Creed God is Almighty because he is sovereign , omnipotent, omniscient, eternal and infinite.

  14. Almighty God
    Hebrew:

    אֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֔י

    —transliteration:

    Genesis 17:1 KJV and Ezekiel 10:5 KJV

    Greek:

    Θεοῦ τοῦ Παντοκράτορος

    —transliteration:

    Revelation 19:15

    Meaning: Almighty God (Ruler of all, Ruler of the universe)

  15. The Alpha and the Omega
    Greek:

    τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

    Meaning: “The First and the Last,” “The Beginning and The End”

    Rev. 1:8, 11, 21:16, 22:13

  16. The All Sufficient One

    “The All Sufficient”

    He is all sufficient because He is Almighty.

    2 Corinthians 9:8 KJV

  17. The —transliteration from Greek
    Greek:

    ὁ Ἀμήν

    Revelation 3:14

  18. The Ancient of Days
    Hebrew:

    וְעַתִּ֥יק יוֹמִ֖ין

    Daniel 7:9 KJV; Dan. 7:13-14 KJV; Dan. 7:22 KJV

    Hebrew transliteration:
    Aramaic transliteration:
    Greek:
    Latin:

  19. The Anointed One


    See:

    The word “ Christ ” means “The Anointed One”See: Christ and Messiah

  20. The Apostle and High Priest

    Hebrews 3:1 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  21. The Atoning Sacrifice for Our Sins

    1 John 2:2 NIV
    “the
    Romans 3:25 KJV

    1 John 2:2 NIV“the propitiation for our sins” —1 John 2:2 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV, NIV; 1 John 2:2; 4:10Romans 3:25 KJV

  22. () —transliteration from Aramaic
    Hebrew:

    וְעַתִּ֥יק יוֹמִ֖ין

    Meaning: “Ancient of Days

    Daniel 7:9 KJV; Dan. 7:13 KJV; Dan. 7:22 KJV

  23. The Author and Finisher of Our Faith

    Hebrews 12:1-2 KJV, NKJV
    “the founder and perfecter of our faith” —Hebrews 12:1-2 ESV
    “the author and perfecter of faith” —Hebrews 12:1-2 NASB

  24. The Author of Eternal Salvation

    Hebrews 5:9 KJV

  25. The Author of Life

    Acts 3:15 ESV, NIV
    “The Prince of life” —Acts 3:15 KJV, NKJV, NASB

  26. The Author of Peace

    1 Corinthians 14:33 KJV

  27. or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אֲבִ֥יר יַעֲקֹֽב׃

    Meaning: “The Mighty One of Jacob

    Isaiah 60:16 KJV

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  28. The Baptizer

    Acts 1:5; Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16; John 1:33; Acts 11:16

  29. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    בּוֹרֵ֥א

    Meaning: “The Creator”

    Isaiah 40:28 NKJV

  30. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    בּוֹרֵ֥א יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל

    Meaning: “The Creator of Israel

    Isaiah 43:15 KJV

  31. The Beginning

    Colossians 1:18 KJV

  32. The Beginning and End

    Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12

    “Alpha and Omega”

    Rev. 1:8

  33. The Beginning of the Creation of God

    Revelation 3:14 KJV
    “the beginning of God’s creation” —ESV

  34. Beloved Son

    Col. 1:13-14

  35. The Blessed and Only Sovereign

    1 Timothy 6:15 NASB, ESV
    “The Blessed and Only Potentate” —1 Tim. 6:15 KJV and NKJV

  36. The Blessed Hope

    Titus 2:13 KJV

  37. The Branch

    Zec. 6:12 KJV; Zec. 3:8 KJV, etc.

    He will build the millennial temple, and will be the world’s glorious King and high priest, bringing peace.

  38. The Branch of Righteousness

    Jeremiah 33:15

  39. The Bread of God

    John 6:33

  40. The Bread of Life

    John 6:26-35 KJV; John 6:47-48 KJV

  41. The Breaker (as in, The Deliverer

    Micah 2:13 KJV

  42. The Bridegroom

    Matthew 25:1; 9:15; Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:34-35; John 3:28-30

    The bride is the Church—the body of all true followers of Christ (Ephesians 5:27).

  43. The Brightness of His Glory

    Hebrews 1:3 KJV and NKJV
    NASB: “the radiance of His glory”
    ESV: “He is the radiance of the glory of God”

  44. The Bright Morning Star

    Rev. 22:16 NASB, ESV
    “the bright and morning star” —Rev. 22:16 KJV, NKJV

  45. A Buckler to All Those that Trust In Him

    “A Shield to All Who Trust In Him,” “A Shield to All Those Who Take Refuge In Him,” “A Shield For All Those Who Take Refuge In Him”

    Psalm 18:30 KJV; Psa. 18:30 NKJV; Psa. 18:30 NASB, Psa. 18:30 ESV

  46. A Buckler to Them That Walk Uprightly

    Proverbs 2:7 KJV
    “a shield to those who walk uprightly” —NKJV
    “a shield to those who walk in integrity” —NASB, ESV

  47. By Whom All Things Were Made, Both in Heaven and On Earth

    John 1:3; Colossians 1:16; and the Nicene Creed

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  48. The Captain of Their Salvation

    Hebrews 2:10 KJV and NKJV
    “the author of their salvation” —NASB
    “the founder of their salvation” —ESV

  49. Our Champion in Battle

    “The Mighty One”

    Hebrew:

    Psalm 24:8 NKJV

  50. The Chief Cornerstone
    Greek:

    Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6

  51. The Chief Shepherd

    1 Peter 5:4 NASB

  52. The Chosen of God

    Luke 23:35

  53. The Christ
    Meaning “the chosen one” or “the anointed one”
    Greek:

    Χριστός

    Greek transliteration:
    Latin:
    Hebrew equivalent:

    מָשִׁיחַ

    Hebrew transliteration:
    Aramaic:

    מְשִׁיחָא

    Aramaic transliteration: —from which came the English word “Messiah

  54. The Chief Corner Stone

    Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6

  55. The Christ
  56. The Christ of God

    Luke 9:20 KJV

  57. Christ Jesus

    Acts 19:4; Romans 3:24; 8:1; 1 Corinthians 1:2, 30; Hebrews 3:1; 1 Peter 5:10, 14

  58. Christ Jesus our Lord

    Romans 8:38-39

  59. Christ Our Passover

    1 Corinthians 5:7

  60. Christ the Lord

    Luke 2:11

  61. Christ the Power of God

    1 Cor 1:23-24

  62. Christ the Power of God, and the Wisdom of God

    1 Cor 1:23-24

  63. Christ the King of Israel

    Mark 15:32 KJV

  64. The Comforter

    John 14:16 KJV; John 14:26 KJV; John 15:26 KJV; John 16:7 KJV

  65. Confidence of All the Ends of the Earth

    Psalm 65:5 KJV and NKJV
    “trust of all the ends of the earth” —NASB
    “the hope of all the ends of the earth” —ESV, NIV

  66. Confidence of Them That Are Afar Off Upon the Sea

    Psalm 65:5 KJV

  67. Consolation of Israel

    Luke 2:25 KJV

  68. A Consuming Fire
    Hebrew:

    אֹכְלָ֖ה ה֑וּא

    —transliteration:

    Deuteronomy 4:24 KJV

    Greek:

    πῦρ καταναλίσκον

    —transliteration:

    Hebrews 12:29 NASB

  69. The Cornerstone

    Isaiah 28:16 KJV; Ephesians 2:20 KJV; 1 Peter 2:6 KJV

  70. Counselor

    “Counseller”

    Isaiah 9:6 KJV

  71. A Covenant for the People

    Isaiah 42:6 KJV; Isa. 49:8 KJV
    “a covenant to the people” —NASB

  72. The Creator
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Isaiah 40:28 KJV; Romans 1:25 KJV; John 1:3 KJV

  73. Creator of All Things Created, That Are in Heaven, and That Are in Earth, Visible and Invisible

    Colossians 1:16

  74. The Creator of Israel
    Hebrew:

    בּוֹרֵ֥א יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל

    —transliteration:

    Isaiah 43:15 NASB

  75. Creator of the Ends of the Earth

    Isaiah 40:28 KJV

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  76. The Dawn From On High

    Luke 1:78 HCSB

  77. Dayspring From On High

    Luke 1:78 KJV, NKJV, ASV, DARBY, GNV
    “a
    “the
    “the
    “heaven’s
    “God’s love and kindness will shine upon us like the

    Luke 1:78 KJV, NKJV, ASV, DARBY, GNV“a light from heaven will shine on us” —NLV“the Sunrise from on high” —NASB“the Dawn from on high” —HCSB“heaven’s dawn is about to break upon us” —TLB“God’s love and kindness will shine upon us like the sun that rises in the sky.” —CEV

  78. The Daystar

    “The Day Star”

    2 Peter 1:19 KJV
    “the morning star” —2 Pet. 1:19 NKJV, NASB, ESV

  79. The Deliverer

    both

    both Jehovah God and God the Son ( Jesus Christ

    Romans 11:26; 2 Samuel 22:2; Psalm 18:2; 40:17; 70:5; 144:2

  80. The Deliverer Out of Zion

    Rom. 11:26 NKJV; Romans 11:26 KJV

  81. The Desire of All Nations

    Haggai 2:7 KJV
    “what is desired by all nations” —Haggai 2:7 NIV

  82. or —transliterations from Greek

    Greek:

    Δέσποτα

    Meaning: “Lord” or “Master”—one who wields unrestricted power

    Luke 2:29 NASB; Acts 4:24 NASB; 2 Peter 2:1 NASB; Jude 4 NASB; Rev. 6:10 NASB

  83. The Door

    John 10:9 NASB

  84. The Door of the Sheep

    John 10:7 KJV

  85. , or —transliterations from Greek

    Greek:

    δυνάστης

    Meaning: Potentate—a king with mighty power

    1 Timothy 6:15 KJV

    “Ruler” —1 Tim. 6:15 NIV

    1 Timothy 6:15 KJV Sovereign ” —1 Tim. 6:15 NASB, ESV“Ruler” —1 Tim. 6:15 NIV

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  86. The Earnest of Our Inheritance

    Ephesians 1:14
    NKJV, ESV: “the guarantee of our inheritance”
    NASB: “a pledge of our inheritance”

  87. (transliteration from ancient Hebrew)
    Hebrew:

    אהיה אשר אהיה

    Meaning: “I Am that I Am” or “I AM who I AM”

    Exodus 3:14 KJV

    Modern Hebrew transliteration:

  88. El or `El  —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אל

    generic word for “god”

    Genesis 14:18 NASB, Exodus 6:3 NASB, and numerous other verses

  89. or —of Aramaic origin
    Hebrew:

    אֱלוֹהַּ

    Compare: El and Eloah and Allah

  90. —transliteration from Hebrew
  91. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “God of (the) Covenant”

    Judges 9:46

  92. ( or ) —transliterations from Hebrew
    Meaning literally: “El, the God of Israel” or “God, the God of Israel”

    Gen. 33:20

  93. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Most High God”
  94. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Mighty God”

    Isaiah 9:6

  95. `Eloah —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אלוהּ

    Aramaic transliteration: Ĕlāhā
    interchangeable with

    Deuteronomy 32:15 NASB; Deu. 32:17 NASB; 2 Chronicles 32:15 NASB; Nehemiah 9:17 NASB; Job 3:4 NASB and many other verses in the book of Job

  96. or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “My God” or “God of” —as in —“God of Abraham
  97. or or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אלהים

    Genesis 1:1; Exodus 3:1, etc.

  98. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אלוהים הנצחי

    Meaning: The Everlasting God or The Eternal God

    Genesis 21:33 NOG; Isaiah 40:28 NOG

  99. (elói) —transliteration from Greek
    Greek:

    Ἐλωῒ

    Derived from Aramaic/Syriac: or (transliterations) —meaning: “He Is

    Mark 15:34 KJV, etc.

  100. El Roi or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning uncertain, but perhaps “God who sees,” “The God Who Sees Me,” “God of seeing”

    Genesis 16:13 NASB;

    Genesis 16:13 NASB; NOG

  101. El Shaddai —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אל שדי‎

    Meaning: “God Almighty”

    Genesis 17:1 NASB; Gen. 28:3 NASB; Gen. 35:11; Gen. 43:14 NASB; Exodus 6:3 NASB; etc.

  102. —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    עליון

    Meaning: “The Most High God

    Genesis 14:18-20 KJV, Gen. 14:22 KJV; Psa. 78:56 NASB

  103. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Consuming Fire”

    Deuteronomy 4:24 KJV

  104. The Eternal God

    Deuteronomy 33:27; Romans 1:20

  105. The Eternal Spirit

    Hebrews 9:14

  106. The Eternal Life

    John 1:1-2; 6:40

  107. The Eternal One

    Isaiah 41:4; 48:12; etc.

  108. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Stone of Israel

    Genesis 49:24 KJV

  109. Everlasting Father

    Isaiah 9:6 KJV, NKJV, ESV
    “Eternal Father” —Isa. 9:6 NASB

  110. Everlasting God
    Hebrew transliteration: —Genesis 21:33 NASB
    Hebrew transliteration: —Isa. 40:28 NASB
    Greek: —Romans 16:26 NASB
  111. Everlasting King

    Jeremiah 10:10 KJV; 1 Timothy 1:16-17 KJV

  112. The Express Image of His Person

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  113. Faithful and True

    Revelation 19:11 NASB

  114. The Faithful Witness

    Rev. 1:5 NASB

  115. The Faithful and True Witness

    Revelation 3:14; 19:11

  116. Faithful Creator

    1 Peter 4:19 KJV

  117. The Faithful God

    Deuteronomy 7:9 NASB

  118. The Father Almighty

    Apostles’ Creed

  119. The Father of Glory

    Ephesians 1:17 KJV

  120. The Father of Lights

    James 1:17 KJV

  121. The Father of Mercies

    2 Corinthians 1:3 KJV

  122. Father of the Fatherless

    Psalm 68:5 KJV, NASB, ESV, NIV

  123. Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

    Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 11:31; Ephesians 3:14, Colossians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3 KJV

  124. The Father of Spirits

    Hebrews 12:9 KJV; Hebrews 12:9 NKJV; Heb. 12:9 NASB
    “Father of our spirits” (ERV, ICB, ISV, NCV, NLT)
    “Father of all spirit beings” (Hebrews 12:9 EXB)
    “our spiritual Father” (EXB, GNT, CEV, CJB)
    Note: Our earthly fathers are the “fathers of our flesh.”

  125. Father to Israel

    Jeremiah 31:9 KJV

  126. The Fear of Isaac
  127. The First-Begotten
  128. The Firstborn From the Dead

    Colossians 1:18 KJV
    “the firstborn from among the dead” —Col. 1:18 NIV
    “the firstborn of the dead” —Revelation 1:5 NASB
    “first begotten of the dead” —Rev. 1:5 KJV

  129. The Firstborn of All Creation

    Col. 1:15-16 NASB, ESV
    “the firstborn of every creature: For by him were all things created” —Col. 1:15-16 KJV
    “the firstborn over all creation” —Col. 1:15-16 NKJV, NIV

  130. The Firstborn Among Many Brothers

    Romans 8:29 ESV
    “the firstborn among many brethren” —Rom. 8:29 KJV, NASB
    “the firstborn among many brothers and sisters” —Rom. 8:29 NIV

  131. Firstborn of Every Creature

    Colossians 1:15 KJV

  132. The Former of All things

    Jeremiah 10:16 KJV; Jer. 51:19 KJV
    “the one who formed all things” —Jer. 10:16 ESV; Jer. 51:19 ESV
    “the Maker of all” —Jer. 10:16 NASB; Jer. 51:19 NASB
    “the Maker of all things” —Jer. 10:16 NKJV; Jer. 51:19 NKJV

  133. Fountain of Living Waters

    Jeremiah 2:13 KJV—compare Rev. 7:17 KJV

  134. Fullness of the Godhead Bodily

    Col. 2:9

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  135. —transliteration from Hebrew
  136. Glorious LORD

    Isaiah 33:21

  137. Glory of their strength

    Psalm 89:17 KJV

  138. Glory of thy people Israel

    Luke 2:32 KJV

  139. God

    written “G-d” by pious Jews and some Christians

  140. God Almighty

    Genesis 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; Exodus 6:3; Revelation 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 16:14; 21:22 KJV

  141. God Alone

    Psalm 86:10 KJV

  142. God and Father of all

    Ephesians 4:6 KJV

  143. God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

    2 Corinthians 11:31; Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3 KJV; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3 KJV

  144. God Full of Compassion

    Psa. 86:15

  145. God Most High

    Psa. 57:2; Luke 8:28

  146. God Manifest in the Flesh

    “God Revealed in the Flesh” / “The Word [Greek: ] was made flesh”

    1 Tim. 3:16 KJV, NKJV, ESV, NASB; John 1:14 KJV

  147. God My Maker

    Job 35:10 NKJV

  148. God my Rock

    Psalm 42:9 NKJV; 2 Samuel 22:47 NKJV; Psalm 18:2 NKJV, etc.

  149. God of Abraham
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Genesis 26:24, 28:13; Exodus 3:6; 1 Chronicles 29:18; Psalm 47:9; Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:26; Acts 3:13; etc.

  150. God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Exodus 3:6, 15-16; Matthew 22:32; Luke 20:37; Acts 3:13; 7:32; etc.

  151. The God of All Comfort

    2 Corinthians 1:3 KJV

  152. The God of All Flesh

    Jeremiah 32:27 KJV

  153. The God of All Grace

    1 Peter 5:10 KJV

  154. The God of All Grace, Who Called Us to His Eternal Glory by Christ Jesus

    1 Peter 5:10 NKJV
    “the God of all grace, who called you to his eternal glory in Christ” —NIV
    “the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ” —NASB, ESV

  155. The God of All Comfort

    2 Corinthians 1:3 KJV, NKJV, ESV, NASB, NIV

  156. The God of All the Families of Israel

    Jeremiah 31:1 KJV

  157. The God of Bethel

    Genesis 31:13

  158. The God of Glory

    Psalm 29:3 KJV, ESV, NASB, NIV; Acts 7:2 KJV

  159. God of Gods

    Deuteronomy 10:17 KJV; Joshua 22:22 KJV; Psalm 136:2 KJV; Daniel 2:47 KJV; Dan. 11:36 KJV

  160. The God of Heaven

    Genesis 24:3 NKJV; Gen. 24:7 NKJV; 2 Chronicles 36:23 NKJV; Ezra 1:2 NKJV; Nehemiah 1:4-5 NKJV; Psalm 136:26 NKJV; Daniel 2:18-19 NKJV; Jonah 1:9 NKJV; Revelation 11:13 NKJV; Rev. 16:11 NKJV; etc.

  161. God of Heaven and Earth

    Ezra 5:11; Acts 14:15; etc.

  162. The God of Hope

    Romans 15:13 NKJV

    1 Timothy 1:1 NKJV, etc.

  163. God of Isaac
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Genesis 28:13; Exodus 3:6; 4:5; Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37; Acts 7:32

  164. God of Israel
  165. The God of Jacob

    Genesis 49:24 NKJV; Exodus 3:6 NKJV; 2 Samuel 23:1 NKJV; Psalm 20:1 NKJV; Isaiah 2:3 NKJV; Matthew 22:32 NKJV, etc.

  166. The God of Jeshurun —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    יְשֻׁרוּן‎

    (Jeshurun or Yeshurun)

    Literal meaning: God of the upright
    “Jeshurun” is a poetic name for Israel.

    Deuteronomy 33:26 KJV

  167. The God of Knowledge

    1 Samuel 2:3 NKJV

  168. God of Love

    John 3:16; 1 John 4:7; 2 Corinthians 13:14; etc.

  169. The God of Love and Peace

    2 Corinthians 13:11 NKJV

  170. God of Me

    Greek:

    Θεέ μου

    (literal translation: “God of Me”)

    Said by Jesus Christ of the Father, as He hung on the cross and referring to the humiliation/humbleness that God the Son took in His incarnation , ministry and death

    Matthew 27:46 Greek
    translated as “My God” in KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV and NIV

  171. God of My Life

    Psalm 42:8 NKJV

  172. God of My Mercy

    2 Samuel 7:15 NKJV; 1 Chronicles 17:13 NKJV; Psalm 89:24 NKJV; Psalm 89:28 NKJV

    “My God of mercy”

    Psalm 59:17 NKJV

  173. God of My Praise

    Psalm 109:1 NKJV

  174. God of My Righteousness

    Psalm 4:1 NKJV

  175. God of Sarah, God of Rebecca, God of Leah, God of Rachel
    Hebrew transliteration:
  176. God of the Covenant
  177. God of Your Fathers

    Exodus 3:13 NKJV, Exo. 3:15 NKJV; etc.

  178. God of Our Salvation

    1 Chronicles 16:35 NKJV; Psalm 65:5 NKJV; Psa. 68:19 NKJV; Psa. 79:9 NKJV; Psa. 85:4 NKJV

  179. God of Patience and Consolation

    Romans 15:5 KJV
    “the God of patience and comfort” —NKJV
    “God who gives perseverance and encouragement” —NASB
    “the God of endurance and encouragement” —ESV

  180. The God of Peace

    Philippians 4:7 NKJV

  181. God of the Armies of Israel

    1 Samuel 17:45 KJV; 1 Sam. 17:26 KJV

  182. The God of the Living

    Mark 12:27 NKJV

  183. God of the Spirits of All Flesh

    Numbers 16:22 KJV; Num. 27:16 KJV

  184. God of the Whole Earth

    Isaiah 54:5

  185. God of Thy Fathers

    Deuteronomy 1:21; 6:3; 12:1; Acts 7:32; etc.

  186. God of Truth and Without Iniquity

    Deuteronomy 32:4 KJV
    “A God of truth and without injustice” —NKJV
    “God of faithfulness and without injustice” —NASB
    “God of faithfulness and without iniquity” —ESV

  187. God Only Wise

    Romans 16:27
    “God, alone wise” —NKJV
    “the only wise God” —NASB, ESV

  188. God our Rock

    Deuteronomy 32:4

  189. God our Savior

    Titus 3:3-5

  190. God Our Shield

    Psalm 84:9 KJV; Genesis 15:1

  191. God Ready to Pardon

    Nehemiah 9:17

  192. The God That Answereth By Fire

    1 Kings 18:24 KJV
    “the God Who answers by fire” —NKJV, NASB, ESV

  193. God That Cannot Lie

    Titus 1:2 KJV
    “God who cannot lie” —Titus 1:2 NKJV, NASB

    see: truth

  194. God, That Comforteth Those That Are Cast Down

    2 Corinthians 7:6 KJV
    “God, who comforts the downcast” —NKJV, ESV
    “God, who comforts the depressed” —NASB

  195. The God Who Works Wonders

    —Psalm 77:14 NASB, ESV
    “The God Who Does
    “God that doest wonders” —Psa. 77:14 KJV

    —Psalm 77:14 NASB, ESV“The God Who Does Wonders ” —Psa. 77:14 NKJV“God that doest wonders” —Psa. 77:14 KJV

  196. God That Formed You

    Deuteronomy 32:18 KJV
    “the God who fathered you” —NKJV
    “the God who gave you birth” —NASB, ESV

  197. God Who Gives Generously to All

    James 1:5 ESV
    “God, who gives to all generously” —James 1:5 NASB
    “God, that giveth to all men liberally” —James 1:5 KJV
    “God, who gives to all liberally” —NKJV

  198. God Who Judges on Earth

    Psalm 58:11 NASB, ESV

    Psalm 58:11 NASB, ESV God That Judgeth in the Earth” —KJV “God who judges in the earth” —NKJV

  199. God That Made the World and All Things Therein

    Acts 17:24

    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “God, who made the world and everything in it”

  200. God Who Accomplishes All Things for Me

    Psalm 57:2 NASB
    “God that performeth all things for me” —Psa. 57:2 KJV
    “God who performs all things for me” —NKJV
    “God who fulfills his purpose for me” —ESV

  201. God Who is Near, Not Far Off

    Jeremiah 23:23 NASB

  202. God Who Shows Mercy

    Romans 9:16; Deuteronomy 7:9; 7:12; 1 Kings 8:23; 2 Chronicles 1:8; 6:14; Nehemiah 1:5; 9:31-32; Psalm 52:8, 57:3; 59:10; 1 Peter 1:3; etc.

  203. God the Father

    John 6:27; 1 Cor. 8:6; 15:24; Gal. 1:1; Eph. 5:20; 6:23; 1:1-3; 1:17; etc.

  204. God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible

    Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed

  205. God the Hero
    Hebrew transliteration:
  206. God the Judge of All

    Hebrews 12:23 NKJV

  207. God the LORD
  208. God Who Always Leads Us in Triumph in Christ

    God the Father or God the Holy Spirit (or both)

    2 Corinthians 2:14 NKJV, NASB

    “God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession” —ESV

    2 Corinthians 2:14 NKJV, NASB God , Which Always Causeth Us to Triumph in Christ ” —2 Cor. 2:14 KJV“God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession” —ESV

  209. God, Which Doeth Great Things and Unsearchable—Marvelous Things Without Number

    Job 5:9 KJV
    “who does great things, and unsearchable, Marvelous things without number” —NKJV
    “who does great and unsearchable things, Wonders without number” —NASB
    “who does great things and unsearchable, marvelous things without number” —ESV

  210. God which fed me all my life long unto this day

    Genesis 48:15 KJV
    “The God who has fed me all my life long to this day” —Genesis 48:15 NKJV
    “The God who has been my
    “the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day” —Genesis 48:15 ESV

    Genesis 48:15 KJV“The God who has fed me all my life long to this day” —Genesis 48:15 NKJV“The God who has been my shepherd all my life to this day” —Genesis 48:15 NASB, NIV“the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day” —Genesis 48:15 ESV

  211. God, Which Giveth Us the Victory Through Our Lord Jesus Christ
  212. God, Which Has Not Turned Away My Prayer
  213. God Which Trieth Our Hearts

    1 Thessalonians 2:4 KJV
    God who tests our hearts” —1 Thes. 2:4 NKJV

  214. The God Who Has Been My Shepherd All My life

    Genesis 48:15 NASB, NIV
    “the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day” —Genesis 48:15 ESV

  215. The God Who Sees

    Genesis 16:13 NKJV

  216. The Godhead

    Acts 17:29 KJV; Col. 2:9 KJV, NKJV; Romans 1:20 KJV, NKJV
    “the Divine Nature” —Acts 17:29 NKJV, NASB
    “the divine being” —Acts 17:29 NIV

  217. God’s Righteous Servant

    Isaiah 53:11

  218. The Good Shepherd

    John 10:11 NASB; John 10:14-15 NASB

  219. Governor Among the Nations

    Ruler Over the Nations

    Psalm 22:28 KJV
    NASB, ESV: “He rules over the nations”

  220. Gracious and merciful God

    Exodus 34:6; 2 Chronicles 30:9; Nehemiah 9:17; 9:31; Psalm 116:5; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2

  221. The Glorious LORD

    Exodus 15:6, 11; Deuteronomy 28:58; Nehemiah 9:5; Isaiah 24:23; 30:30; 33:21

  222. The Great and Dreadful God

    Daniel 9:4
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: The “great and awesome God”

  223. The Great God

    Ezra 5:8; Nehemiah 8:6; Daniel 2:45; Titus 2:13; Revelation 19:17; Deuteronomy 10:17; Proverbs 26:10; Psalm 95:3 KJV, NKJV

  224. The Great God and Our Savior Jesus Christ

    Titus 2:13 KJV, NKJV
    NASB, ESV: The “great God and Savior, Christ Jesus”

  225. The Great God That Formed All Things

    Proverbs 26:10 KJV
    NKJV: “The great God who formed everything”
    Does not appear in NASB or ESV

  226. Great High Priest

    Heb. 4:14 NASB

  227. The Great King Above All Gods

    Psalm 95:3 NKJV, KJV, NASB

  228. Great King Over All the Earth

    Psalm 47:2 KJV

  229. The Great Shepherd of the Sheep

    Heb. 13:20 NKJV

  230. The Great, the Mighty God

    Jeremiah 32:18 KJV, NKJV
    NASB, ESV: “great and mighty God”

  231. The Great, the Mighty, and the Awesome God

    Nehemiah 9:32 NASB
    Neh. 9:32 KJV: “The great, the mighty, and the terrible
    “Terrible” in the KJV translation means “awesome.”

    Nehemiah 9:32 NASBNeh. 9:32 KJV: “The great, the mighty, and the terrible God “Terrible” in the KJV translation means “awesome.”

    top

  232. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “El the God of your father”
  233. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Trinity”— consisting of the Father, , and
    This word does not appear in the Bible.
  234. —transliteration from Greek
    Greek:

    ὁ Ἅγιος

    Meaning: “The Holy One

    Mark 1:24 NASB

  235. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Redeeming Angel

    Genesis 48:16

  236. —transliteration from Hebrew:

    השם


    Meaning: “ The Name

    the name

    the name YHWH without saying that Holy name

    Leviticus 24:11 (see blasphemy by

    Leviticus 24:11 (see blasphemy by Shelomith ); Deuteronomy 28:58

  237. Head of the Church

    “Head of the Body, the

    “Head of the Body, the Church

    Eph 1:22; 5:23; Col. 1:18

  238. Health of My Countenance

    Psalm 42:11 KJV; Psa. 43:5 KJV
    “The help of my countenance” —NKJV, NASB

  239. Heavenly Father

    Matthew 6:14; Matt. 6:26; Matt. 6:32; Matt. 15:13; Matt. 18:35; Luke 11:13

  240. Heir of All Things

    Heb. 1:2, 14-21

  241. The Help of My Countenance

    Psalm 42:11 NKJV, NASB; Psa. 43:5 NKJV, NASB
    “Health of my countenance” —Psalm 42:11 KJV; Psa. 43:5 KJV

  242. The Helper

    John 14:16 NKJV; John 14:26 NKJV; John 15:26 NKJV; John 16:7 NKJV

  243. Helper of the Fatherless

    Psalm 10:14 KJV, NKJV, ESV
    “Helper of the

    Psalm 10:14 KJV, NKJV, ESV“Helper of the orphan ” —NASB

  244. He in Whom I Trust

    Psalm 144:2; 2 Corinthians 1:10; Ephesians 1:13

  245. He That Abideth of Old

    Psalm 55:19 KJV
    “He who abides from of old” —NKJV
    “The One who sits enthroned from of old” —NASB
    “God who lives forever” —NCV
    He “who is enthroned from of old” —Psa. 55:19 NIV

  246. He That Built All Things

    Hebrews 3:4 KJV
    “He who built all things” —NKJV
    “The builder of all things” —ESV, NASB, NRSV

  247. Him Who Made the Heavens With Skill

    Psalm 136:5 NASB
    “He That By Wisdom Made the Heavens” —Psa. 136:5 KJV
    “Him who by wisdom made the heavens” —NKJV

  248. He That Called You Into the Grace of Christ
  249. He Who Calls You

    1 Thessalonians 5:24 ESV, NASB, RSV
    KJV— “He That Calleth You”

  250. He That Cometh From Above

    “He Who Comes From Above”

    John 3:31
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who comes from above”

  251. He That Cometh From Heaven

    “He Who Comes From Heaven”

    John 3:31; 6:50
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who comes from heaven”

  252. He That Cometh In the Name of the Lord

    “He That Comes In the Name of the

    “He That Comes In the Name of the LORD ” / “He Who Comes In the Name of Jehovah

    Psalm 118:26 KJV; Matthew 21:9 KJV; 23:39 KJV; Mark 11:9 KJV; Luke 13:35 KJV
    “He that cometh in the name of
    He who comes in the name of the Lord” —NKJV, ESV
    “The One who comes in the name of the LORD” —NASB
    “The one who comes in the name of Yahweh” —NOG
    “He who comes in Yahweh’s name” —WEB
    “He who comes in the name of Adonai” —CJB

    Psalm 118:26 KJV; Matthew 21:9 KJV; 23:39 KJV; Mark 11:9 KJV; Luke 13:35 KJV“He that cometh in the name of Jehovah ” —ASV, DarbyHe who comes in the name of the Lord” —NKJV, ESV“The One who comes in the name of the LORD” —NASB“The one who comes in the name of Yahweh” —NOG“He who comes in Yahweh’s name” —WEB“He who comes in the name of Adonai” —CJB

  253. He That Comforteth You

    “He Who Comforts You”

    Isaiah 51:12 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who comforts you”

  254. He That Createth the Wind

    “He Who Creates the Wind”

    Amos 4:13 KJV
    Amos 4:13 NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who…creates the wind”

  255. He That Declareth Unto Man What Is His Thought

    Amos 4:13 KJV
    “who declares to man what his thought is” —NKJV
    “…declares to man what are His thoughts” —NASB
    “…declares to man what is his thought” —ESV

  256. He That Doth Speak

    Isaiah 52:6 KJV
    “He who speaks” —NKJV
    “I Am the one who is speaking” —NASB

  257. Him Who Has Endured Such Hostility By Sinners Against Himself

    Hebrews 12:3 NASB
    “He that endured such contradiction of sinners against Himself” —Heb. 12:3 KJV
    “Him who endured such opposition from sinners” —Heb. 12:3 NIV

  258. He That Filleth All In All

    Ephesians 1:23 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Him who fills all in all”

  259. The One Who Formed You From the Womb

    Isaiah 44:24 NASB
    “He who formed you from the womb” —Isaiah 44:24 NKJV
    “He that formed thee from the womb” —Isa. 44:24 KJV

  260. He Who Forms Mountains

    Amos 4:13 NASB
    “He that formeth the mountains” —Amos 4:13 KJV

  261. He That Giveth Breath Unto the People

    Isaiah 42:5 KJV
    “Who gives breath to the people” —Isa. 42:5 NKJV

  262. He That Giveth Strength and Power Unto His People

    Psalm 68:35 KJV
    “He who gives strength and power to His people” —Psa. 68:35 NKJV

  263. He That Has Called Us to Glory and Virtue

    2 Peter 1:3 KJV
    “Him who called us by glory and virtue” —2 Pet. 1:3 NKJV
    “…who called us by His own glory and excellence” —NASB
    “Him who called us to his own glory and excellence” —ESV

  264. He That Has Mercy On Them

    Isaiah 49:10 KJV
    “He who has compassion on them” —Isa. 49:10 NKJV, NASB
    “He who has pity on them” —Isa. 49:10 ESV

  265. He That Has the Key of David

    Revelation 3:7 KJV
    “He who has the key of David” —Rev. 3:7 NKJV, NASB
    “the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David” —Rev. 3:7 ESV

  266. He That Has the Seven Spirits of God

    Revelation 3:1 KJV
    “He who has the seven Spirits of God” —NKJV, NASB

  267. He That Holds the Seven Stars in His Right Hand

    Revelation 2:1 KJV
    “He who holds the seven stars in His right hand” —NKJV, NASB

  268. He Who Dwells on High

    Psalm 113:5 NKJV
    “He Who Dwelleth on High” —Psa. 113:5 KJV
    “Who is enthroned on high” —Psa. 113:5 NASB
    “Who is seated on high” —Psa. 113:5 ESV

  269. He Who Gave Himself a Ransom for All

    1 Timothy 2:6 KJV
    “Who gave Himself as a ransom for all” —1 Tim. 2:6 NKJV, NASB, ESV

  270. Him That Is Able to Do Exceeding Abundantly Above All That We Ask or Think

    Ephesians 3:20 KJV
    “Him who is able to do exceedingly abundantly above all that we ask or think” —NKJV
    “Him who is able to do far more abundantly beyond all that we ask or think” —NASB
    “Him who is able to do far more abundantly than all that we ask or think” —ESV

  271. He That Is Able to Keep You From Falling

    Jude 1:24 KJV
    “Him who is able to keep you from stumbling” —ESV, NASB, NIV, NKJV

  272. Him That Is Able to Present You Faultless Before the Presence of His Glory With Exceeding Joy

    Jude 1:24 KJV
    “Him who is able to…present you faultless Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy” —NKJV
    “Him who is able to…make you stand in the presence of His glory blameless with great joy” —NASB
    “Him who is able to…present you blameless before the presence of his glory with great joy” —ESV

  273. He Who Is the Beginning

    Colossians 1:18 KJV; Colossians 1:18 NKJV
    “He is the beginning” —Colossians 1:18 NASB, ESV

  274. He That Is Higher Than the Highest
  275. He Who Is Holy

    Rev. 3:7 NKJV, NASB; Rev. 22:11 NKJV
    “He that is holy” —Revelation 3:7 KJV; Rev. 22:11 KJV

  276. He That Is Mighty

    God the Father or Jehovah

    Luke 1:49 KJV
    “He who is mighty” —NKJV, ESV
    “the Mighty One” —NASB

  277. Him Who Is Able to Establish You

    Romans 16:25 NASB, NIV, NKJV
    “He that is of power to stablish you” —Rom. 16:25 KJV

  278. He Who Is True

    Revelation 3:7 NKJV; Rev. 3:7 NASB
    “He That Is True” —Rev. 3:7 KJV
    “The True One” —Rev. 3:7 ESV

  279. He That Judgeth Me

    1 Corinthians 4:4 KJV
    “He who judges me” —NKJV
    “the one who examines me” —NASB
    “the Lord who judges me” —ESV

  280. He That Judgeth Righteously

    1 Peter 2:23 KJV
    “Him who judges righteously” —NASB, NKJV
    “Him who judges justly” —ESV, NIV

  281. He That Keepeth Israel

    Psalm 121:4 KJV
    “He who keeps Israel” —NKJV, NASB, ESV

  282. He That Keepeth Thee

    Psalm 121:3 KJV
    ESV, NASB, NKJV, NRSV: “He who keeps you”

  283. He That Keepeth Thy Soul

    Proverbs 24:12 KJV
    “He who keeps your soul” —NKJV, NASB
    “He who keeps watch over your soul” —ESV
    “He who guards your life” —NIV
    “The One who guards your soul” —NOG

  284. He That Liveth and Was Dead

    Revelation 1:18 KJV
    “He who lives, and was dead” —NKJV
    “the living One; and I was dead” —NASB
    “The living one. I died, and behold I Am alive forevermore” —ESV

  285. Him That Liveth For Ever and Ever

    Revelation 10:6 KJV; Daniel 4:34 KJV; Dan. 12:7 KJV
    “Him who lives forever and ever” —NKJV, NASB, ESV

  286. He That Loved Us

    1 John 4:10 KJV; 1 John 4:10 NASB

  287. He That Maketh the Morning Darkness

    Amos 4:13 KJV
    “He who makes dawn into darkness” —NASB

  288. He That Maketh the Seven Stars and Orion

    Amos 5:8 KJV
    “He who made the Pleiades and Orion” —NASB

  289. He That Made Great Lights

    Psalm 136:7; Genesis 1:16 KJV
    NKJV: “Him who made great lights”
    NASB, LEB: “Him who made the great lights”
    GNT, ICB, NCV: “He made the sun and the moon”

  290. He That Ministereth to You the Spirit

    Galatians 3:5 KJV
    “He who provides you with

    Galatians 3:5 KJV“He who provides you with the Spirit ” —NASB

  291. He That Openeth, and No Man Shutteth; and Shutteth, and No Man Openeth

    Revelation 3:7 KJV
    “He who opens and no one shuts, and shuts and no one opens” —NKJV
    “He who…who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens” —NASB
    “He who…who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens” —ESV

  292. He That Pondereth the Heart

    Proverbs 24:12 KJV, GNV
    NASB, ESV, NIV: “He who weighs the heart”
    CJB: “He who weighs hearts”
    ERV: “The Lord knows everything, and he knows why you do things.”
    CEV: “God can read your mind. He watches each of us and knows our thoughts.”

  293. He That Raised Up Jesus From the Dead

    Romans 8:11 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Him who raised Jesus from the dead”

  294. He That Revealeth Secrets

    Daniel 2:28-29 KJV, ASV
    AMPC, CJB, TLB, MEV: “He Who reveals secrets”
    NOG: “The one who reveals secrets”
    ISV: “the Revealer of Secrets”
    NASB, ESV: “He who reveals mysteries”
    NIV, CSB, CEB, LEB, MSG, NRSV: “the Revealer of Mysteries”

  295. He That Rideth Upon the Heavens Of Heavens

    “Him Who Rides On the Heaven of Heavens”

    Psalm 68:33 KJV
    “Him who rides on the heaven of heavens” —NKJV
    “Him who rides upon the highest heavens” —NASB
    “Him who rides in the heavens” —ESV

  296. He That Sanctifieth

    “He Who Sanctifies”

    Hebrews 2:11 KJV
    “He who sanctifies” —NKJV, NASB, ESV”

  297. He That Searcheth the Hearts

    “He Who Searches Hearts”

    Romans 8:27 KJV; Rev. 2:23 KJV
    “He who searches the hearts” —NKJV, NASB
    “he who searches hearts” —ESV

  298. He That Shall Come

    Hebrews 10:37 KJV
    “He who is coming” —NKJV, NASB
    “the coming one” —ESV

  299. He That Shall Have Dominion

    Numbers 24:19 KJV
    “Out of Jacob One” —NKJV
    “One from Jacob shall have dominion” —NASB
    “One from Jacob shall exercise dominion” —ESV

  300. He That Sitteth in the Heavens

    “He Who Sits In the Heavens”

    Psalm 2:4 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who sits in the heavens”

  301. He That Sitteth Upon the Circle of the Earth

    “He Who Sits Above the Circle Of the Earth”

    Isaiah 40:22 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who sits above the circle of the earth”

  302. He That Sitteth Upon the Throne

    “He Who Sits on the Throne”

    Revelation 5:13 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Him who sits on the throne”

  303. Him That Smote Egypt in Their Firstborn

    “Him Who Struck Down the Firstborn of Egypt”

    Psalm 136:10; 78:51 KJV
    NKJV: “Him who struck Egypt in their firstborn”
    NASB: “Him who smote the Egyptians in their firstborn”
    ESV: “Him who struck down the firstborn of Egypt”

  304. He That Spared Not His Own Son

    “He Who Did Not Spare His Own Son”

    Romans 8:32 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “He who did not spare His own Son”

  305. He That Speaketh From Heaven

    “Him Who Warns From Heaven”

    Hebrews 12:25 KJV
    NKJV: “Him who speaks from heaven”
    NASB, ESV: “Him who warns from heaven”

  306. He That Strengtheneth the Spoiled Against the Strong

    Amos 5:9 KJV
    NKJV: “He rains ruin upon the strong”
    NASB: “He who flashes forth with destruction upon the strong”
    ESV: He “who makes destruction flash forth against the strong”

  307. He That Stretched Out the Earth Above the Waters
  308. He That Took Me Out of the Womb
  309. He That Treadeth Upon the High Places of the Earth
  310. He That Turneth the Shadow of Death Into the Morning
  311. He That Washed Us From Our Sins
  312. He That Worketh Miracles Among You

    Galatians 3:5 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: He who “works miracles among you”

  313. He Which Baptizeth With the Holy Ghost
  314. He Who Stirs Up the Sea

    Jeremiah 31:35; Job 26:12 KJV
    NKJV: He “who disturbs the sea”
    NASB, ESV: He “who stirs up the sea”

  315. He Which Giveth Life Unto the World
  316. He Which Hath Anointed Us
  317. He Which Hath the Sharp Sword with Two Edges
  318. The Head
  319. The Head of the Corner

    Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:7 KJV

  320. The High and Lofty One That Inhabits Eternity

    Isaiah 57:15 KJV

  321. The High God their Redeemer
  322. The Highest One

    Daniel 7:25

  323. Him Which Divided the Red Sea Into Parts

    Psalm 136:13 KJV

  324. Him Which Is, and Which Was, and Which Is to Come

    Rev. 1:4; Rev. 1:8 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Him who is and who was and who is to come”

  325. Him Which Is Perfect in Knowledge

    Job 37:16 KJV, NKJV
    NASB: “One perfect in knowledge”
    ESV: “Him who is perfect in knowledge”

  326. He Which Led His People Through the Wilderness
  327. He which Searcheth the Reins and Hearts

    Revelation 2:23 KJV
    NIV: “He who searches hearts and minds”
    NASB and NKJV: “He who searches the minds and hearts”

  328. He Which Smote Great Kings

    “He Who Smote Great Kings”

    Psa. 136:17 KJV

  329. He Which Stablisheth Us With You in Christ
  330. He Which Was Ordained of God to Be the Judge of Quick and Dead

    Acts 10:42 KJV

  331. He Who Alone Doeth Great Wonders

    Psa. 136:4; Rev. 13:13; Job 9:10 KJV

  332. He Who Built the House

    Heb. 3:3 KJV

  333. He Who Has Called You Out of Darkness Into His Marvelous Light

    1 Peter 2:9

  334. He Who Has Eyes Like a Flame of Fire

    Rev. 1:14-15; 2:18

  335. He Who Walks in the Midst of the Seven Golden Candlesticks

    Rev. 2:1 KJV

  336. He Who Works All Things After the Counsel of His Own Will

    Ephesians 1:11

  337. He Whom God Hath Sent
  338. Him With Whom We Have to Do

    Hebrews 4:13 KJV, NASB
    NKJV, ESV: “Him to whom we must give account”

  339. He Who Comes in the Name of the Lord

    Matthew 21:9 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  340. High Priest (or Chief Priest)

    Hebrews 2:17; 3:1; 4:14-15; 6:20; 7:26; 8:1; 9:11

  341. High priest of Good Things to Come

    Hebrews 9:11 KJV, NASB

  342. High priest Over the House of God

    Heb. 10:21 KJV

  343. High Priest Forever After the Order of Melchizedek

    Psalm 110:4 KJV

  344. Him That Ought To Be Feared

    Psalm 76:11 KJV
    NKJV: “Him who ought to be feared”
    NASB, ESB: “Him who is to be feared”
    NIV: “The One to be feared”

    See: The fear of the Lord

  345. Him Who Is Able to Establish You

    Romans 16:25 NASB, NIV, NKJV

  346. His Anointed

    See: Messiah and Christ

  347. His Dear Son

    Col. 1:13 KJV

  348. His Son From Heaven

    1 Thessalonians 1:10 KJV

  349. His Spirit That Dwelleth In You

    Romans 8:11 KJV
    “His Spirit who dwells in you” —Romans 8:11 NKJV

  350. His Indescribable Gift

    2 Corinthians 9:15 NASB, NIV
    “his inexpressible gift!” —2 Cor. 9:15 ESV
    “His unspeakable gift” —2 Cor. 9:15 KJV

  351. The Holy
  352. Holy God
    Hebrew:

    אֱלֹהִ֥ים קְדֹשִׁ֖ים

    —transliteration:

    Joshua 24:19 NASB

  353. The Holy One

    “Holy One”

    Greek:

    ὁ Ἅγιος

    —transliteration:

    Isaiah 43:15 KJV; Mark 1:24 NASB; Rev. 3:7 ESV

  354. The Holy One and the Just

    Acts 3:14 KJV

  355. The Holy One, Blessed Be He

    —phrase common among Jews
    Hebrew:

    הקדוש ברוך הוא

    Hebrew transliterations: / /

  356. The Holy One In Our Midst

    Hosea 11:9; 12:6 KJV

  357. The Holy One of God
  358. The Holy One of Israel
    —transliteration from Hebrew

    2 Kings 19:22; Psalm 71:22; 78:41; Isaiah 1:4; 5:19; 10:20; 30:11; Jeremiah 50:29; 51:5; Isaiah 1:4; 12:6; 48:17; etc.

  359. The Holy Ghost

    Matthew 1:18 KJV, etc.

  360. The Holy Spirit

    Luke 11:13, etc.

  361. The Holy Spirit of Promise

    Ephesians 1:13 and referred to in Acts 2:33
    The Holy Spirit was first promised by Jesus Christ in John 16:5-15.

  362. Hope of Israel

    Jeremiah 14:8; 17:13; Acts 28:20

  363. The Hope of Israel, his Savior in time of trouble

    Jeremiah 14:8 NKJV
    “the hope of Israel, the savior thereof in time of trouble” —Jeremiah 14:8 KJV

  364. The Hope of Our Fathers

    Jeremiah 50:7 KJV

  365. Horn of My Salvation

    2 Samuel 22:3; Psalm 18:2

  366. House of Defense

    AKJV (American King James Version) of Psalm 31:2 NASB
    “house of defence” —Ps. 31:2 KJV
    “A stronghold to save me” —Psa. 31:2 NASB

  367. —transliteration from Greek:

    τοῦ Ὑψίστου

    Meaning: “The Most High God

    Mark 5:7 KJV; Acts 16:17 KJV; Hebrews 7:1 KJV

  368. The Husband

    God as Israel’s husband

    Isaiah 54:5 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Your husband”

  369. The Husbandman

    John 15:1 KJV

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  370. I Am
    Hebrew:

    אהיה

    —transliteration:

    —transliteration:

    Jehovah and

    Exodus 3:14 KJV; John 8:58 KJV
    “I Am He” —Mark 13:6 NASB; Luke 21:8 NASB; John 8:18 NASB; John 8:24 NASB; John 8:28 NASB; John 13:19 NASB; John 18:5 NASB; John 18:6 NASB; John 18:8 NASB; Revelation 2:23 NASB

  371. I Am that I Am
    Hebrew:

    אהיה אשר אהיה

    —transliteration:
    Modern Hebrew translitation:

    Exodus 3:14 KJV
    “I AM WHO I AM” —Exodus 3:14 NKJV, ESV, NASB

  372. I Am a Father to Israel

    Jeremiah 31:9 KJV

  373. I Am a Great King

    Malachi 1:14

  374. I Am Alive for Evermore

    Revelation 1:18

  375. I Am Alpha and Omega

    Revelation 1:8, 11; 21:6; 22:13

  376. I Am for You

    Ezekiel 36:9

  377. I Am from Above

    John 8:23

  378. I Am God

    Literal: “I Am Elohim”

    Hebrew:

    אֱלֹהִים

    Genesis 35:11; 46:3; Psalm 46:10; 50:7; Isaiah 43:12; 45:22; 46:9; Ezekiel 28:9; Hosea 11:9

  379. I Am God Almighty
  380. I Am Gracious
  381. I Am He that Comforteth You
  382. I Am He That Doth Speak

    Isaiah 52:6

  383. I Am He that Lives and Was Dead

    Revelation 1:18

  384. I Am He Who Searches Minds and Hearts

    Rev. 2:23 NASB and NKJV
    “I Am he who searches mind and heart” —Rev. 2:23 ESV
    “I Am he which searcheth the reins and hearts” —Rev. 2:23 KJV

  385. I Am Holy

    Leviticus 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:26; 21:8

  386. I Am in the Midst of Israel
  387. I Am Married Unto You

    Jeremiah 3:14 KJV

  388. I Am Meek and Lowly in Heart

    Jesus Christ during His

    Jesus Christ during His first coming

    Matthew 11:29 KJV

  389. I Am Merciful

    Jeremiah 3:12

  390. I Am the Almighty God

    Genesis 17:1 KJV

  391. I Am the Bread of Life

    John 6:35 KJV; John 6:48

  392. I Am the Door

    John 10:9 KJV

  393. I Am the Door of the Sheep

    John 10:7

  394. I Am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob
  395. I Am the God of Thy Fathers

    Acts 7:32 KJV

  396. I Am the Living Bread

    John 6:51

  397. I Am The LORD

    Genesis 15:7, etc.

  398. I Am The LORD, and There Is None Else

    Isaiah 45:5-6, 18

  399. I Am The Lord GOD

    Genesis 28:13; Ezekiel 13:9, etc.

  400. I Am the LORD in the Midst of the Earth

    Exodus 8:22 KJV

  401. I Am the LORD that doth sanctify you

    Exodus 31:13 KJV
    “I am the Lord who sanctifies you” (NASB)

  402. I Am the LORD That Heals You

    Exodus 15:26 KJV
    “I, the Lord, am your healer” (NASB)

  403. I Am the LORD That Maketh All Things

    Isaiah 44:24 KJV
    “I, the Lord, am the maker of all things” (NASB)

  404. I Am the LORD, the God of all flesh

    Jeremiah 32:27 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV
    NIV: “I am the Lord, the God of all mankind”

  405. I Am the LORD thy God

    Exodus 20:2; Deuteronomy 5:6; Psalm 81:10; Isaiah 43:3; 48:17; 51:15; Hosea 13:4 KJV

  406. I Am the LORD Thy God from the Land of Egypt

    Hosea 13:4 KJV

  407. I Am the LORD Thy God Which Leadeth Thee By the Way That Thou Shouldest Go

    Isaiah 48:17 KJV
    NASB: “I am the Lord your God… Who leads you in the way you should go”
    ESV: “I am the Lord your God… who leads you in the way you should go”
    NOG: “I am Yahweh your Elohim. …I lead you where you should go.”

  408. I Am the LORD Thy God Which Teacheth Thee to Profit

    Isaiah 48:17
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “I am the Lord your God, Who teaches you to profit”

  409. I Am the LORD Which Exercise Lovingkindness, Judgment, and Righteousness in the Earth

    Jeremiah 9:24 KJV
    NKJV: “I am the Lord, exercising lovingkindness, judgment, and righteousness in the earth”
    NASB: “I am the Lord who exercises lovingkindness, justice and righteousness on earth”
    ESV: “I am the Lord who practices steadfast love, justice, and righteousness in the earth”

  410. I Am the LORD Which Hallow You

    Leviticus 22:32 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “I am the Lord who sanctifies you”

  411. I Am the Resurrection, and the Life

    John 11:25 KJV

  412. The Root and Offspring of David

    “the root and the descendant of David”

    Revelation 22:16 KJV; Rev. 22:16 NASB

  413. I Am the Son of God

    John 10:36; Matthew 27:43 KJV

  414. I Am the Vine

    John 15:5 KJV

  415. I Am Their Inheritance
    (“their” refers to the priests)

    Ezekiel 44:28 KJV

  416. I Am Your Exceeding Great Reward

    Genesis 15:1 KJV

  417. I Am Thy Part and Thine Inheritance (“thy” and “thine” refers to the Levites)

    Numbers 18:20 KJV

  418. I Am Thy Savior
  419. I Am With Thee

    Genesis 26:24; Acts 18:10; etc. KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “I am with you”

  420. I Am With Thee to Deliver Thee

    Jeremiah 1:8 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “I am with you to deliver you”

  421. I Am With Thee to Save Thee

    Jeremiah 15:20 KJV
    NASB: “I am with you to save you”

  422. I Am With You Always

    Matthew 28:20

  423. I That Speak in Righteousness, Mighty to Save

    Isaiah 63:1

  424. (“The Most High God”)

    Dan. 5:18, 21

  425. Image of the invisible God
  426. Meaning: “God with us”

    Matthew 1:20-23; Isaiah 7:14

  427. The Invisible God
  428. Israel’s Creator

    Isaiah 43:15

  429. Israel’s King

    Isaiah 43:15

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  430. Jealous
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Exodus 34:14 KJV

  431. Jealous God
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Exodus 20:5; Deuteronomy 4:24, etc.

  432. Jehovah
    Hebrew:

    יהוה

    —transliteration: or

    —transliteration:or

    The most often used name for God in the Hebrew Bible (appearing several thousand times) / It appears first in Genesis.

  433. or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Meaning: Jehovah sanctifies

    Leviticus 20:8, etc.

  434. or or —transliterations from Hebrew

    Genesis 3:23, etc.

  435. Jehovah-Jireh —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Lord Will Provide”
  436. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Lord who sanctifies you”

    Leviticus 20:8 KJV

  437. Jehovah-Nissi or or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The LORD our Banner”

    Exodus 17:8-15

  438. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Lord is my Shepherd

    Psa. 23:1

  439. Jehovah-Rapha or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    יְהוָ֖ה רֹפְאֶֽךָ׃

    Meaning: “The LORD Who Heals You” —Exodus 15:26 NKJV
    “The LORD, Your Healer” —Exodus 15:26 ESV

  440. —transliteration from Hebrew
  441. —transliteration from Hebrew
  442. Jehovah-Sabaoth —transliteration from Hebrew
  443. Jehovah-Shalom —transliteration from Hebrew
  444. Jehovah-Shammah —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Lord is there”
  445. Jehovah-Tsidkenu —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Lord our Righteousness
  446. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Jehovah is Salvation
  447. Jesus (English name)
    Meaning: Salvation, or “the Lord is salvation,” “the Lord Saves”
    French, Norman:
    Greek:

    Ἰησοῦς

    Greek transliteration: or
    Aramaic:

    ܝܫܘܥ

    Aramaic transliteration:
    Hebrew:

    ישוע

    or

    יֵשׁוּעַ

    —This name appears many times in the Hebrew version of the Old Testament.
    Note: is an alternate form of or (Joshua) or JeshuaHebrew:

    יְהוֹשֻׁעַ

    Hebrew transliteration: —This name is preferred by many Messianic Jews.
    Roman Latin:
    Late Latin:

  448. Jesus Christ our Lord
  449. Jesus Christ our Savior

    Titus 3:5-7

  450. Jesus Christ the Righteous
  451. Jesus of Nazareth

    “Jesus the Nazarene” ()

  452. Jesus of Galilee

    “Jesus the Galilean”

    Matthew 26:69

  453. Jesus the Mediator of the new Covenant
  454. Jesus, Which Delivered Us From the Wrath to Come

  455. Hebrew:

    יְהוֹשׁ֫וּעַ

    —transliteration: Yehoshua

    —transliteration: Yehoshua

    Meaning: “ Jehovah is Salvation

  456. The Judge

    Psalm 75:7; Acts 10:42; Hebrews 12:23; James 5:9 KJV

  457. Judge of All the Earth

    “Judge of All”

    Genesis 18:25 KJV, NASB

    Also see: Shaphat

  458. Judge of the Living and the Dead

    Acts 10:42 NKJV, NASB, ESV, etc.
    KJV: “

    Acts 10:42 NKJV, NASB, ESV, etc.KJV: “ Judge of Quick and Dead”

  459. Judge of the Widows

    Psa. 68:5

  460. Just God and Saviour

    Isaiah 45:21

  461. The Just One

    Isaiah 26:7; Acts 7:52; 22:14

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  462. —transliteration from Hebrew

    Meaning: Holy

    Isaiah 6:3 KJV

  463. —transliteration from Hebrew
  464. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “Consuming Fire”

    Heb. 12:29

  465. Thy Keeper

    Psalm 121:5 KJV
    NASB, ESV: “Your keeper”

  466. The King Eternal, Immortal, Invisible
  467. The King Forever and Ever
  468. King of All the Earth

    Psalms 47:7 KJV

  469. The King of Glory

    Psalm 24:7-10

  470. King of Heaven
  471. King of Israel

    2 Samuel 24:23; Psalm 98:6; Isaiah 6:5; Jeremiah 46:18; 48:15; 51:57

  472. King of Kings

    1 Timothy 6:15; Rev. 17:14, 19:16

    Hebrew transliteration: or
    Meaning: “The King, King of kings

  473. King of Kings and Lord Of Lords

    Revelation 19:16

  474. King of Nations

    Jeremiah 10:7

  475. King of Saints
  476. King of the Jews

    John 19:19, 21-22

  477. —transliteration from Greek

    Meaning: “ Creator

    Romans 1:25

  478. —transliteration from Hebrew

    Meaning: Star from Jacob

    Numbers 24:17

  479. or —transliterations from Greek

    Greek:

    Κύριός

    Meaning: “Lord” or “Master”

    John 13:14; 20:16; Ephesians 6:9; Col. 4:1

  480. —transliteration from Greek

    Meaning: “ Lord God Almighty”

    Rev. 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7, 21:22

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  481. The Lamb
  482. The Lamb Slain from the Foundation of the World

    The Lamb Slain Before the Foundation of the World

    Rev. 13:8

  483. The Lamb That Was Slain

    Revelation 5:12

  484. The Lamb of God
  485. The Last Adam

    1 Corinthians 15:45

  486. (Ancient Aramaic) —transliteration:

    Eashoa Msheekha

    This is the name “Jesus Christ” in Ancient Aramaic , a language He spoke while on Earth.

    Eashoa = Jesus / Msheekha = Christ

  487. The Life
  488. The Lifter Up of My Head

    Psalm 3:3

  489. The Light

    John 12:35-36; 1 Timothy 6:16; Revelation 21:23; 22:5

  490. Light of Israel

    Isaiah 10:17; Psalm 27:1

  491. Light of the Gentiles

    Luke 2:32 KJV

  492. Light of the Nations

    Hebrew transliteration:

    Isaiah 42:6

  493. Light of the World

    John 8:12 KJKV; John 9:5 NASB

  494. Light to Lighten the Gentiles

    A Light of Revelation to the Gentiles

    Luke 2:32 KJV; Luke 2:32 NASB

  495. Lion of the Tribe of Judah

    Revelation 5:5 NASB; compare Genesis 49:9-10 NASB and Isaiah 31:4 NASB

  496. The Living Bread Which Came Down From Heaven

    John 6:51 KJV

  497. The Living Father

    John 6:57

  498. The Living God

    the fact that He is truly alive, in contrast to false god

    the fact that He is truly alive, in contrast to false god idols which are not—“…their idol is wood!… They burn incense to worthless gods…” Jer. 10:8; 18:15 / “…mute idols…” (1 Cor. 12:2 NASB)

    Deut. 5:26; Josh. 3:10; 1 Sam. 17:26; 36; 2 Kings 19:4; 16; Psalm 42:2; 84:2; Dan. 6:26; Hos. 1:10; Matthew 16:16

  499. The Living Stone

    1 Peter 2:4

  500. —transliteration from Greek:

    Λόγος

    Meaning: “The Word,” “The Word of God”

    John 1:1 KJV; Rev. 19:13 KJV

  501. The LORD

    Isaiah 45:18 (“…I am the LORD…”); Isaiah 44:24; etc.

  502. Lord and Christ
  503. Lord and Savior Jesus Christ

    2 Peter 1:1; 3:2; 3:17-18; Titus 2:13-14

  504. The LORD God

    Genesis 2:4, 3:23, etc.

    Hebrew transliteration:

  505. The Lord God Almighty
    Greek:

    Rev. 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7, 21:22

  506. The LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel
  507. The LORD God of gods

    Joshua 22:22

    Hebrew transliteration:

  508. The LORD God of Israel

    2 Kings 19:15

  509. The LORD God of My Salvation

    Psalm 88:1; 18:46; Micah 7:7; Habakkuk 3:18

  510. Lord, Holy and True

    Revelation 6:10 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    ESV: “Sovereign Lord, holy and true”

  511. The LORD Most High

    Genesis 14:22; Psalm 7:17; 47:2; 21:7; 91:9; 92:1, 8; 2 Samuel 22:14 KJV, NKJV; NASB
    “The Lord, the Most High” —ESV

  512. The LORD God of Our Fathers

    Deuteronomy 26:7; 1 Chronicles 29:18; 2 Chronicles 13:12; 20:6; Ezra 7:27

  513. LORD God of recompense (=repayment or reward)

    Ruth 2:12; Ezekiel 11:21; 16:43; 22:31

  514. LORD God of the Hebrews

    Exodus 3:18; 7:16; 9:1; 9:13; etc.

  515. Lord God of the Holy Prophets

    Revelation 22:6 KJV

  516. LORD God of Truth

    Psalm 31:5

  517. Lord of All

    Acts 10:36 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  518. The Lord of Glory

    James 2:1 KJV, NKJV, ESV—also numerous verses use the phrase “the glory of the Lord”
    NASB: “glorious Lord Jesus Christ”

  519. The LORD of Hosts

    “Lord of the Hosts”

    or
    appears 245 times in the Old Testament, including: 1 Samuel 1:3, 4:4; 1 Chronicles 11:9; Psa. 24:10; Isaiah 1:9; Mal. 4:3

    Hebrew transliteration:orappears 245 times in the Old Testament, including: 1 Samuel 1:3, 4:4; 1 Chronicles 11:9; Psa. 24:10; Isaiah 1:9; Mal. 4:3

  520. Lord Jesus

    Luke 24:3; Acts 1:21; 4:33; Romans 10:9; etc.

  521. The Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the only-begotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God] Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father

    Nicene Creed

  522. Lord of Kings
  523. The LORD of lords

    Deuteronomy 10:17; Psa. 136:3 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV; 1 Tim 6:15; Rev. 17:14, 19:16

  524. The Lord of the Harvest

    Matthew 9:38 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  525. Lord God of Your Fathers

    Joshua 18:3; Deuteronomy 1:11, etc.

  526. The Lord God Omnipotent

    Revelation 19:6 KJV, NKJV
    “The Lord our God the Almighty” —NASB, ESV

  527. The Lord GOD Which Gathereth the Outcasts of Israel

    Isaiah 56:8 KJV
    NKJV, ESV: “The Lord God, who gathers the outcasts of Israel”
    NASB: “The Lord God, who gathers the dispersed of Israel”

  528. The LORD Is Present
    Hebrew transliteration: or

    Ezekiel 48:35

  529. The LORD Mighty In Battle

    Psalm 24:8

  530. The LORD My Banner
    Hebrew transliteration: or

    Exodus 17:15 KJV

  531. The LORD My Strength
  532. The LORD My Shepherd
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Psalm 23:1

  533. The Lord of Peace

    2 Thessalonians 3:16 ESV, KJV, NASB
    “The Lord is Peace” —Judges 6:24 NASB, ESV
    “The-Lord-Is-Peace” —Judges 6:24 NKJV

    Jehovah brought peace to the Hebrew people many times

  534. The Lord of the Sabbath (Sabaoth)
    Hebrew transliteration: Jehovah Sabaoth (or )

    Romans 9:29 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    —James 5:4 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    “the Lord of

    Romans 9:29 KJV, NKJV, NASB—James 5:4 KJV, NKJV, NASB“the Lord of hosts ” —James 5:4 ESV

  535. The Lord of the Whole Earth

    Micah 4:13 KJV, NKJV, ESV
    “the Lord of all the earth” —NASB

  536. The LORD on High

    Psalm 93:4 KJV; Psa. 113:5 KJV; Isaiah 33:5 KJV; Jeremiah 25:30 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  537. The LORD Our Maker
  538. The LORD Our Righteousness
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Jeremiah 23:6

  539. The LORD Strong And Mighty

    Psalm 24:8

  540. The LORD that Sanctifies

    Exodus 31:13 KJV

  541. The LORD That Heals

    Exodus 14:26 KJV

  542. The LORD That Is Faithful

    Isaiah 49:7 KJV

  543. The LORD That Maketh All Things
  544. The LORD That Smiteth
  545. The LORD God of Hosts
  546. The LORD the Judge

    Judges 11:27

  547. The LORD Thy God

    “The LORD Your God”

    Genesis 27:20; Exodus 15:26; 20:2; etc.

  548. The LORD Thy God from the Land of Egypt

    Hosea 12:9; 13:4 KJV

  549. The LORD Thy God in the Midst of Thee

    Zephaniah 3:17 KJV

  550. The LORD Thy Redeemer

    Isaiah 44:24 KJV; Isaiah 48:17 KJV

  551. The LORD Which Hallows You
  552. The LORD Which Will Help Thee (You)
  553. The LORD Will Provide
    Hebrew transliteration: or

    Genesis 22:13-14

  554. The LORD who teaches you to profit, who leads you in the way you should go

    Isaiah 48:17 NASB

  555. The LORD your God Which Goeth Before You
  556. The LORD’s Christ

    Luke 2:26 KJV

  557. The LORD Our Peace
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Judges 6:24 KJV

  558. The LORD Our God

    Exodus 3:18; 5:3; 8:10, 26-27; etc.

  559. The LORD our Lord

    Nehemiah 10:29; Psalm 8:1, 9 KJV, NKJV, ESV
    “God our Lord” —NASB

  560. The LORD that Smiteth

    Ezekiel 7:9 KJV
    “I am the Lord who strikes” —NKJV
    “I the Lord who strikes” —NIV
    “I, the Lord, do the smiting” —NASB

  561. The Lord, Which Art, and Wast, and Shalt Be

    Revelation 16:5 KJV
    NKJV: “Lord, The One who is and who was and who is to be”
    NASB: “You, who are and who were”
    ESV: “You…who is and who was”

  562. The LORD Who Created the Heaven

    Isaiah 45:12; 45:18; 44:24

  563. God Who Formed the Earth

    Isaiah 45:12; 45:18; 44:24

  564. The LORD, your Savior and your Redeemer

    Isaiah 49:26 NASB

  565. The LORD Your Redeemer

    Isaiah 48:17; 44:24 NASB

  566. Love
    Meaning: “God is love”)

    1 John 4:8, 16

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  567. The Majesty in the Heavens

    Hebrews 8:1 KJV

  568. The Maker of All Things

    —Isaiah 44:24; Jer. 10:16 NKJV; Jer. 51:19 NKJV
    “the Maker of all” —Jer. 10:16 NASB; Jer. 51:19 NASB
    “the one who formed all things” —Jer. 10:16 ESV; Jer. 51:19 ESV
    “The Former of All things” —Jeremiah 10:16 KJV; Jer. 51:19 KJV

  569. The Majesty On High

    Hebrews 1:3 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  570. Man of Sorrows, and Aquainted With Grief

    Isaiah 53:3 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  571. Man of War

    Exodus 15:3 KJV, NKJV, ESV
    “A warrior” —NASB

  572. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    מָע֣וֹן

    Meaning: “Dwelling place” or “Refuge”

    Psalm 90:1 NASB

  573. Master

    Greek:

    Κύριός

    —transliteration: Kyrios

    John 13:14 KJV; Ephesians 6:9 KJV

    Greek:

    Κύριον

    —transliteration: Kyrion

    Colossians 4:1 KJV

    Greek:

    Διδάσκαλε

    —transliteration: Didaskale

    John 20:16 KJV

  574. Master of the World
    Hebrew transliteration: or
  575. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    מְצוּדָה

    Meaning: “Fortress,” “Shelter,” “Refuge,” “Stronghold”

    Psalm 91:2 KJV

  576. The Mediator of a Better Covenant

    Hebrews 8:6 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    “The Mediator of the New Covenant” —Heb. 12:24 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  577. The Mediator of the New Testament

    Hebrews 9:15 KJV
    “the Mediator of the new covenant” —NKJV
    “the mediator of a new covenant” —NASB, ESV

  578. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    מֶלֶךְ

    Meaning: King

  579. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    מֶ֣לֶךְ הַכָּבֽוֹד׃

    Meaning: “The King of Glory”—Psalm 24:7-10

  580. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    מלך ישראל

    Meaning: “King of Israel

    Psalm 98:6 KJV; Isaiah 6:5 KJV; Jeremiah 46:18 KJV; Jer. 48:15 KJV; Jer. 51:57 KJV

  581. Merciful and Faithful High Priest

    Hebrews 2:17 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  582. Merciful God

    Hebrews 2:17 KJV

  583. Messiah or or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Meaning: “The Anointed One” or “The Chosen One”
    Hebrew:

    מָשִׁיחַ

    Aramaic:

    מְשִׁיחָא

    Aramaic transliteration:
    Greek equivalent (transliteration): —Christ

  584. The Messiah the Prince

    Daniel 9:25 KJV

  585. The Mighty

    Deuteronomy 10:17, etc.

  586. The Mighty God

    Isaiah 9:6

  587. The Mighty God of Jacob

    Genesis 49:24 KJV, NKJV, etc.
    “The Mighty One of Jacob” —Genesis 49:24

  588. Mighty One of Israel

    Isaiah 1:24 NASB; Isaiah 30:29 KJV

  589. The Mighty One of Jacob

    Genesis 49:24; Isaiah 49:26 NASB

  590. The Mighty One of Jacob
    —Hebrew transliteration

    Isaiah 49:26; 60:16

  591. Mighty Terrible One

    Jeremiah 20:11 KJV
    “a dread champion” —Jer. 20:11 NASB
    “a mighty, awesome One” —NKJV
    “a mighty warrior” —NIV
    “a dread warrior” —NRSV

  592. Mine Elect

    “My Elect One” / “My Servant”

    Isaiah 42:1 KJV; Isa. 65:22 KJV
    “My Elect One” —NKJV
    “My Servant” —NASB, ESV

  593. My Holy One

    —Habakkuk 1:12 NKJV, NASB, ESV

  594. Minister of the Sanctuary, and of the True Tabernacle

    Hebrews 8:2 KJV, NKJV
    minister in the sanctuary and in the true tabernacle” —NASB
    “minister in the holy places, in the true tent that the Lord set up” —ESV

  595. —transliteration from Greek
    Greek:

    μισθαποδότης

    Meaning: “Rewarder” of them that diligently seek Him

    Hebrews 11:6 KJV

  596. Morning Star

    Greek:

    φωσφόρος

    —transliteration:

    2 Peter 1:19 NKJV, NASB, ESV, etc.
    “Day Star” —KJV

  597. The Most High
    Hebrew:

    עֶלְי֑וֹן

    —transliteration: or

    —transliteration:or

    ὕψιστος

    —transliteration: or

    Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy 32:8; Daniel 4:25; Daniel 4:32; Psa. 9:2, 91:1; 2 Samuel 22:14; Acts 7:48; 16:17; etc.

  598. The Most High God
    Hebrew:

    לְאֵ֥ל עֶלְיֽוֹן׃

    —transliteration:

    Genesis 14:18-20 KJV; Gen. 14:22 KJV; Psa. 78:56 KJV

    Hebrew:

    אֱלָהָא֙ עליא עִלָּאָ֔ה

    —transliteration:

    Daniel 5:18 KJV; Dan. 5:21 KJV

    Greek:

    θεός τοῦ Ὑψίστου

    —transliteration:

    Genesis 14:18-20; Numbers 24:16; Psalm 46:4; 78:56, Daniel 3:26; Mark 5:7, Acts 16:17; Heb. 7:1 KJV; etc.

  599. The Most High Over All the Earth

    Psalm 83:18 KJV

  600. The Most Holy

    Daniel 9:24 KJV

  601. Most Mighty
    Hebrew:

    גִּבּ֑וֹר

    —transliteration: —meaning: mighty, strong

    Psalm 45:3 KJV

  602. Most upright
    Hebrew:

    יָשָׁ֕ר

    —transliteration:

    Isaiah 26:7 KJV

  603. My Beloved

    Matthew 12:18

  604. My Beloved Son

    Mark 1:10-11

  605. My Buckler

    Psalm 18:2 KJV

  606. My Defense

    Psalm 59:9, 16-17; 7:10; 62:2, 6; 94:22

  607. My Defense and Refuge in the day of my trouble

    Psalm 59:16

  608. My Deliverer

    2 Samuel 22:2; Psalm 18:2; 40:17; 70:5; 144:2 KJV

  609. My Exceeding Joy

    Psalm 43:4 KJV

  610. My father’s God

    Exodus 15:2

  611. My firstborn, higher than the kings of the Earth

    Psalm 89:27

  612. My Fortress

    2 Samuel 22:2; Psalm 18:2; 31:3; 71:3; 91:2; 144:2; Jeremiah 16:19

  613. My Friend

    John 15:14; Luke 12:4

  614. My Glory

    Psalm 3:3; 62:7

  615. My God
  616. My Goodness
  617. My Help

    Psalm 27:9; 30:10; 40:17; 63:7; 70:5; 94:17

  618. My Helper

    Hebrews 13:6

  619. My Hiding Place

    Psalm 32:7; 119:114

  620. My Hiding Place and My Shield

    119:114

  621. My High Tower

    2 Samuel 22:3; Psalm 18:2; 144:2

  622. My Hope
  623. My Hope in the Day of Evil

    Jeremiah 17:17

  624. My Judge

    Job 9:15; 23:7 KJV

  625. My King

    Psalm 5:2; 44:4; 68:24; 74:12; 84:3 KJV

  626. My Lamp

    2 Samuel 22:29

  627. My Love

    John 15:9

  628. My Portion Forever

    Psa. 73:26

  629. My Portion in the Land of the Living

    Psa. 142:5

  630. My Praise

    Psalm 109:1; Isaiah 42:8; Jeremiah 17:14

  631. My Redeemer

    Job 19:25; Psalm 19:14

  632. My Refuge
    Hebrew:

    מַחְסִ֣י

    —transliteration: or

    Psalm 91:2

  633. My Refuge and My Portion

    Psalm 142:5

  634. My Refuge In the Day of Affliction

    Jeremiah 16:19

  635. My Rock

    2 Samuel 22:2, 47; Psalm 18:2, 46; 28:1; 31:3; 42:9; 62:2, 6; 71:3; 92:15

  636. My Salvation

    Exodus 15:2; 2 Samuel 22:3; 47; Job 13:16; Psalm 18:46; etc.

  637. My Savior

    2 Samuel 22:3; Luke 1:47

  638. My [God’s] Servant
  639. My [God’s] Servant David
  640. My Shepherd

    Psalm 23:1; Matthew 9:36; 25:32; 26:31; Mark 6:34; 14:27; John 10:11, 14; 16; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 5:4

  641. My Shield

    2 Samuel 22:3; Psalm 28:7; 119:114; 144:2

  642. My Song

    Isaiah 12:2

  643. My Stay

    ““my support”

    2 Samuel 22:19; Psalm 18:18 KJV
    ESV, NASB, NIV: “my support”

  644. My Strength and Power

    2 Samuel 22:33 KJV
    ESV: “my strong refuge”
    NASB: “my strong fortress”
    NIV: “God who arms me with strength and keeps my way secure”

  645. My Strength and Song

    Exodus 15:2; Psalm 118:14

  646. My Strong Habitation, Whereunto I May Continually Resort

    “My Strong Refuge To Which I May Resort Continually”

    Psalm 71:3 KJV; Psa. 71:3 NKJV

  647. My Strong Refuge
  648. My Strong Rock
  649. My Trust From My Youth

    Psa. 71:5

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  650. Nail in a Sure Place

    Isaiah 22:23 KJV

  651. The Name

    used by many modern Jews

    Hebrew:

    השם

    —transliteration: HaShem

    —transliteration: HaShem

    ה

    = The /

    שם

    = Name

    the name “YHWH” (

    the name “YHWH” ( Jehovah

    Leviticus 24:11

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  652. One LORD

    Deuteronomy 6:4; Zechariah 14:9

  653. The One True God
  654. One Mediator Between God and Men

    1 Timothy 2:5 KJV

  655. Only Begotten of the Father

    John 1:14 KJV—compare John 1:18 NASB

  656. Only Begotten Son of God

    John 3:18 KJV

  657. The Only Lord God

    Jude 1:4 KJV

  658. The Only One

    Zechariah 14:9 (…the Lord will be

    Zechariah 14:9 (…the Lord will be king over all the earth ; in that day the Lord will be the only one, and His name the only one.)

  659. The Only True God

    John 17:3 KJV

  660. The Only Wise God

    1 Timothy 1:17; Romans 16:27 KJV

  661. The Only Wise God

    Romans 16:27 NASB, ESV
    “God, alone wise” —NKJV

  662. The Only Wise God Our Savior

    Jude 1:25; Romans 16:27 KJV

  663. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Light of the Nations”

    Isaiah 42:6 KJV

  664. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    אֽוֹר־ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙

    Meaning: “The Light of Israel”

    Isaiah 10:17 KJV; Psalm 27:1 KJV

  665. Our Captain
  666. Our Dwelling Place

    Psalm 90:1 KJV

    Hebrew transliteration: or

  667. Our Father
    Hebrew:

    אָבִ֔ינוּ

    —transliteration:

    Isaiah 63:16 KJV; Isa. 64:8 KJV

    Greek transliteration:

    Mat. 6:9 KJV

  668. Our Father, Our King
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Luke 11:2 NKJV

  669. Our Father Which Art in Heaven

    Matthew 6:9 KJV; Luke 11:2 KJV

  670. Our God and Savior Jesus Christ

    2 Peter 1:1 NKJV

  671. Our Great God and Savior Jesus Christ

    Titus 2:13-14 NKJV, NASB

  672. Our Guide

    Psalm 48:14 KJV —compare Luke 1:79 NKJV

  673. Our Hope of Glory

    Colossians 1:27 KJV

  674. Our Judge

    Isaiah 33:22

  675. Our Lawgiver

    “The

    “The LORD our Lawgiver” / “ Yahweh our Lawgiver”

    Isaiah 33:22 KJV

  676. Our Life

    Colossians 3:4 KJV

  677. Our Lord Jesus Christ

    Acts 15:26 KJV; Acts 20:21 KJV; Romans 5:11 KJV; Romans 15:6 KJV; Romans 16:18 KJV; Romans 16:20 KJV; 1 Corinthians 1:7 KJV, etc.

  678. Our Peace

    Ephesians 2:14 KJV

  679. Our Potter

    Isa. 64:8 KJV

  680. Our Redeemer

    Isaiah 63:16 KJV; Isaiah 43:14; 47:4; Job 19:25; Psalm 19:14; Romans 3:24; Ephesians 1:7; etc.

  681. Our Savior Jesus Christ

    2 Timothy 1:10 KJV; Titus 2:13 KJV; 2 Peter 1:1 KJV

  682. Our Shield

    Genesis 15:1

  683. The Overcomer

    John 16:33; Rev. 3:21; 5:5; 13:7; 17:14

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  684. or —transliterations from Greek
    Greek:

    Παντοκράτωρ

    Meaning: “Almighty”

    2 Corinthians 6:18; Revelation 19:6

  685. The Pearl of Great Price

    Matthew 13:46 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “One pearl of great value”

  686. A Place of Broad rivers and Streams

    Isaiah 33:21 KJV

  687. Plant of Renown
    Literally, “A Plant of the Name

    Ezek. 34:29 KJV
    “A Renowned Planting Place” —NASB

  688. The Great Physician

    Mark 2:17 NASB; John 5:1-9 KJV

    See: Miracles of the Bible

  689. Pioneer and Perfecter of our Faith

    Hebrews 12:2 NIV
    “The Author and Finisher of Our Faith” —Hebrews 12:2 KJV

  690. The Portion of Jacob

    Jeremiah 10:16 KJV; Jer. 51:19 KJV

  691. Portion of Mine Inheritance and of My Cup

    Psalm 16:5 KJV

  692. Possessor of Heaven and Earth

    Genesis 14:19 KJV; Genesis 14:22 KJV

  693. Only Potentate

    Greek transliteration:
    Meaning “Ruler,” “Sovereign”

    1 Timothy 6:15

  694. Precious Corner Stone

    “Precious Cornerstone”

    Isaiah 28:16 KJV; 1 Peter 2:6-7 KJV

  695. A Very Present Help in Trouble

    Psa. 46:1 KJV

  696. Preserver of Men

    Job 7:20 KJV
    “Watcher of mankind” —ESV
    “Watcher of men” —NKJV, NASB

  697. Priest Upon His Throne

    Zec. 6:13 KJV

  698. The Prince

    Daniel 9:25 KJV; Acts 5:31 KJV; Acts 3:15 KJV

  699. Prince and Savior

    Acts 5:31 KJV

  700. The Prince of Life

    Acts 3:15 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    “Author of

    Acts 3:15 KJV, NKJV, NASB“Author of Life ” —Acts 3:15 ESV, NIV

  701. Prince of Peace
    Hebrew:

    שַׂר־ שָׁלֽוֹם׃

    —transliteration:

    Isaiah 9:6 KJV

  702. Prince of Princes
  703. Prince of the Kings of the Earth

    Revelation 1:5 KJV

  704. The Promise of the Father

    Acts 1:4 KJV; Acts 2:33 KJV

  705. The Prophet

    Matthew 21:11; John 7:40 KJV

  706. The Propitiation for Our Sins

    1 John 2:2 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV, NIV; 1 John 4:10 KJV; Romans 3:25 KJV

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  707. and

    Jealous God” —Exodus 20:5 KJV; Deuteronomy 4:24 KJV, etc.)

    Meaning: “Jealous” —Exodus 34:14” —Exodus 20:5 KJV; Deuteronomy 4:24 KJV, etc.)

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  708. Rabbī or Rabbi —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    רִבִּי

    Meaning: “teacher”

    John 1:38 KJV; John 1:49 KJV; John 3:2 KJV; John 3:26 KJV; John 6:25 KJV

  709. Redeemer

    Job 19:25; Psa. 19:14; Jeremiah 50:34; etc.

  710. Redeemer of Israel

    Isaiah 49:7 NKJV

  711. Redeeming Angel
    Hebrew transliteration:
    Refers to the pre-incarnate Christ

    Genesis 48:16 NKJV

  712. Refuge
    —transliteration from Hebrew

    Psalm 90:1

  713. Refuge for the Oppressed

    Psalm 9:9 KJV, NIV
    “stronghold for the oppressed” —Psalm 9:9 NASB, ESV

  714. A Refuge from the Storm

    Isaiah 25:4 KJV, NASB

  715. Refuge in Times of Trouble

    Psa. 9:9 KJV

  716. The Resurrection and The Life

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) and His ability to

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) and His ability to resurrect His true followers from spiritual and physical death and give them eternal life

    John 11:25 KJV, NASB

  717. Rewarder of Them That Diligently Seek Him

    Heb. 11:6 KJV

  718. The Righteous Branch
  719. Righteous Father

    John 17:25 KJV

  720. Righteous God and Savior

    Isaiah 45:21

  721. The Righteous Judge

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) and

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) and The Final Judgment

    2 Timothy 4:8 KJV

  722. The Righteous LORD

    Psalm 11:7 KJV

  723. The Righteous One

    Proverbs 21:12; Isa. 24:16; Acts 3:14, 7:52, 22:14; 1 John 2:1

  724. Rivers of Water in a Dry Place

    Isaiah 32:2 KJV; Isa. 41:8 KJV

  725. The Rock

    2 Samuel 22:47 KJV; 2 Sam. 23:3 KJV; Psa. 62:7 KJV; Psa. 18:31 NIV; Psa. 89:26 KJV; Psa. 94:22 KJV, etc.

  726. The Rock that Begat Thee

    Deuteronomy 32:18 KJV
    “the Rock…who gave you birth” —Deut. 32:18 NIV
    “the Rock who begot you” —Deut. 32:18 NKJV, NASB
    “the Rock that bore you” —Deut. 32:18 ESV

  727. The Rock That Is Higher Than I

    Psalm 61:2 KJV, NKJV, NASB

  728. Rock of His Salvation ()

    Deuteronomy 32:15

  729. Rock of Israel
    or —transliteration from Hebrew

    2 Samuel 23:3

  730. Rock of My Refuge

    Psalm 94:22 KJV

  731. Rock of My Salvation

    2 Samuel 22:47 KJV; Psalm 89:26 KJV

  732. Rock of My Strength

    Psalm 62:7 KJV

  733. Rock of offence (to both the houses of Israel)
    Meaning: “a stone to strike and a rock to stumble over” NASB

    Isaiah 8:14 KJV; Romans 9:33 KJV; 1 Peter 2:8 KJV

  734. Rod Out of the Stem of Jesse

    Isaiah 11:1

  735. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Shepherd

    Genesis 49:24; Psalm 23:1; 80:1

  736. The Root and the Offspring of David

    Revelation 22:16 KJV, NKJV
    “the root and the descendant of David” —Rev. 22:16 NASB

  737. The Root of David

    Revelation 5:5 KJV; Revelation 22:16 KJV

  738. The Root of Jesse

    Isaiah 11:10; Romans 15:12

  739. Hebrew:

    Genesis 1:2—“The was hovering over the water.”

  740. Only Ruler
    Greek transliteration:

    1 Timothy 6:15 CEV, NIV, DARBY, GW, ISV

  741. Ruler in Israel
  742. Ruler Over the Nations

    Psalm 22:28 NASB, ESV

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  743. —transliteration from Hebrew
  744. The Salvation of God
  745. The Salvation of Israel
  746. The Sanctifier
  747. Hebrew:

    שלום

    = = peace
    Prince of Peace”—Isaiah 9:6

    = peace”—Isaiah 9:6

  748. Saving Strength of His Anointed

    Psalm 28:8 KJV

  749. The Savior

    Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; 13:23; Ephesians 5:23; Philippians 3:20; 1 Timothy 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:3-4; 2:10, 13; 3:4; 3:6; 2 Peter 1:1

  750. The Savior of All Men

    1 Timothy 4:10 NASB, NKJV, KJV
    “the Savior of all people” —1 Timothy 4:10 NIV

  751. The Savior of the World

    1 John 4:14 KJV

  752. The Seed of Abraham

    Hebrews 2:16 KJV

  753. The Seven Spirits of God

    Revelation 3:1; 4:5; 5:6 KJV, NKJV, NASB

  754. (or )
    Hebrew:

    שַׁדַּי

    Meaning: the Omnipotent; the Almighty

    Exodus 6:2-3 KJV

  755. Shadow From the Heat

    “A Shade From the Heat;”

    Isaiah 25:4 KJV; Isa. 25:4 NKJV

  756. The Shadow of a Great Rock in a Weary Land

    Isaiah 32:2 KJV, NKJV
    NASB: “Like the shade of a huge rock in a parched land”

  757. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    שָׁפָט

    Meaning: “Judge” or “He has judged”

    Psalm 50:6 and elsewhere

    Meaning: “God of Judgment

    Hebrew:

    אֱלִישָׁפָט

    Meaning: “God has judged”

  758. A Shelter

    “A Shelter For Me”

    Hebrew transliteration:

    Psa. 61:3

  759. Shepherd
    Hebrew translitation:

    Genesis 49:24; Psalm 23:1; 80:1

  760. Shepherd and Bishop of Your Souls
  761. Shepherd of Israel
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Psalm 80:1

  762. Shepherd of Israel
  763. My Shield
    Hebrew:

    מָגִנִּ֞י

    2 Samuel 22:3; Psa. 28:7, 119:114; 144:2

  764. Shiloh —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    שִׁילֹה

    Meaning: “He whose it is” or “he who is to be sent,” “that which belongs to him”

    Genesis 49:10

  765. Shield of Abraham
    Hebrew transliteration:
  766. Shield of Thy Help

    “Shield of Your Help”

    Deuteronomy 33:29 KJV

  767. A Shield to Those Who Walk in Integrity

    Proverbs 2:7 NASB, ESV

  768. The Son

    Matthew 4:6; 11:27; Mark 13:32 KJV—and numerous other verses

  769. Son of David

    Matthew 1:1; 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; etc.; Mark 10:47-48; 12:35; Luke 1:32; 18:38-39; Romans 1:3

  770. The Son of God

    Luke 1:35, etc.

  771. The Son of Man
  772. The Son of the Blessed

    Mark 14:61

  773. Son of the Father
  774. Son of the Highest

    Luke 1:32

  775. The Son of the Living God

    Matthew 16:16; John 6:69

  776. Son Over His Own House

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) / The

    God the Son (Jesus Christ) / The Church is Christ’s “house.”

    Hebrews 3:6 KJV

  777. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “The Wisdom of God
  778. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “Savior”
  779. The Spirit

    Genesis 1:2; 41:38; Exodus 31:3; 35:31; Numbers 11:25-26; 24:2; 27:18; Deuteronomy 34:9; Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14; 1 Samuel 10:6; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Isaiah 11:2; 40:13; Matthew 3:16; 4:1; Luke 4:14; Acts 8:39; Romans 8:26 KJV—and numerous other verses

  780. Spirit of Christ
    Greek transliteration: )

    Romans 8:9; 1 Peter 1:11

  781. Spirit of Counsel and Might
  782. The Spirit of Glory and of God

    1 Peter 4:14

  783. Spirit of God
    Hebrew transliteration:

    Genesis 1:2; 1 Samuel 10:10

    Greek transliteration:

    Romans 8:9

  784. The Spirit of Grace

    Heb. 10:29

  785. The Spirit of His Son

    Galatians 4:6 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  786. The Spirit of Holiness

    Romans 1:4

  787. The Spirit of Knowledge and of the Fear of the LORD

    Isaiah 11:2

  788. The Spirit of Life

    Rev. 11:11

  789. The Spirit of Mercy
  790. The Spirit of the Living God

    2 Corinthians 3:3

  791. The Spirit of the LORD

    Isaiah 61:1; Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14; 1 Samuel 10:6; 16:13-14; 2 Samuel 23:2; 1 Kings 18:12; 22:24

  792. Spirit of Truth

    John 14:17, 15:26, 16:13; 1 John 4:6

  793. The Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding

    Ephesians 1:17; Isaiah 11:2

  794. The Spirit of Your Father

    Matthew 10:20 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  795. A Star Out of Jacob

    Numbers 24:17 KJV

  796. The Stone

    Psa. 118:22; Isaiah 28:16; Dan. 2:45; Matthew 21:42; Acts 4:11; etc.

    also see: Rock

  797. A Tried Stone

    Isaiah 28:16 KJV and NKJV
    NASB, ESV: “a tested stone”

  798. Stone of Israel
    Hebrew tranliteration:

    Genesis 49:24

  799. A Stone of Stumbling [to the unbeliever]

    Isaiah 8:14; 1 Peter 2:8

  800. The Stone Which the Builders Disallowed

    1 Peter 2:7 KJV
    NKJV, NASB: “The stone which the builders rejected”
    ESV: “The stone that the builders rejected”

  801. Strength

    Psa. 19:14, etc.

  802. Strength of Israel

    1 Samuel 15:29; Psa. 68:33-34; Joel 3:16; Micah 5:3-4

  803. Strength of My Heart

    Psalm 73:26

  804. Strength of My Salvation

    Psalm 140:7

  805. A Strength to the Needy in His Distress

    Isaiah 25:4

  806. A Strength to the Poor

    Isaiah 25:4

  807. The Strong One
    Hebrew transliteration:
  808. Strong LORD

    Psalm 89:8 KJV

  809. A Strong Tower from the Enemy

    Psalm 61:3 KJV and NKJV
    NASB: “A tower of strength against the enemy”
    ESV: “a strong tower against the enemy”

  810. The Stumblingstone

    Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:8

  811. Sun and Shield

    Psa. 84:11

  812. Sun of Righteousness

    Malachi 4:2

  813. Sure Foundation

    Isaiah 28:16 KJV

  814. Sword of Thy Excellency

    Deuteronomy 33:29

    top

  815. That Man Whom He (God the Father) Has Ordained

    Acts 17:31

  816. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “God”
  817. or —transliterations from Greek
    Greek:

    Θεότητος

    Meaning: Godhead; Deity

    Col. 2:9; Romans 1:20

  818. Thine Everlasting Light

    Isaiah 60:20 KJV
    NKJV, ESV: “Your everlasting light”
    NASB: “An everlasting light”

  819. Thou that Dwellest Between the Cherubim

    Psalm 80:1; Isaiah 37:16 KJV
    NKJV: “You who dwell between the cherubim”
    NASB: “You who are enthroned above the cherubim”
    ESV: “You who are enthroned upon the

    Psalm 80:1; Isaiah 37:16 KJVNKJV: “You who dwell between the cherubim”NASB: “You who are enthroned above the cherubim”ESV: “You who are enthroned upon the cherubim

  820. Thou that Dwellest in the Heavens

    Psalm 123:1 KJV
    NKJV: “You who dwell in the heavens”
    NASB, ESV: “You who are enthroned in the heavens!”

  821. Thou that Hearest Prayer

    Psalm 65:2 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “You who hear prayer”

  822. Thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel

    Psalm 22:3 KJV
    NASB: “You who are enthroned upon the praises of Israel”

  823. Thou that Leadest Joseph Like a Flock

    Psalm 80:1 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “You who lead Joseph like a flock”

  824. Thou That Lifts Me Up From the Gates of Death

    Psalm 9:13
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “You who lift me up from the gates of death”

  825. Thou That Savest by Thy Right Hand

    Psalm 17:7 KJV
    NASB: “Savior of those who take refuge at Your right hand”
    ESV: “Savior of those who seek refuge from their adversaries at your right hand”
    NKJV: “You who save those who trust in You From those who rise up against them”

  826. Thou Whom My Soul Loveth

    Song 1:7
    NASB, ESV: “You whom my soul loves”
    NKJV, NIV: “You whom I love”

  827. The True God

    2 Chronicles 15:3; Jeremiah 10:10; John 17:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 John 5:20 KJV, NASB
    NKJV, ESV: “Him who is true”

  828. The True Bread from Heaven

    John 6:32 KJV

  829. The True Light

    John 1:9; 1 John 2:8 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV

  830. Thy Creator

    Ecclesiastes 12:1 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Your Creator”

  831. Thy Exceeding Great Reward

    Genesis 15:1 KJV
    NKJV: “Your exceedingly great reward”

  832. Thy Father that Hath Bought Thee

    Deuteronomy 32:6 KJV
    NKJV: “Your Father, who bought you”
    NASB: “Your Father who has bought you”

  833. Thy God that Pleadeth the Cause of His People

    Isaiah 51:22 KJV
    NKJV, ESV: “Who pleads the cause of his people”
    NASB: “Who contends for His people”

  834. Thy Good Spirit

    Nehemiah 9:20; Psalm 143:10 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Your good Spirit”

  835. Thy Holy Child Jesus

    Acts 4:27, 30 KJV
    NKJV, NASB ESV: “Your holy servant”

  836. Thy Life, and the Length of Thy Days

    Deuteronomy 30:20 KJV
    NASB: “Your life and the length of your days”

  837. Thy Lord the LORD

    Isaiah 51:22 KJV
    NASB: “Your Lord, the Lord”

  838. Thy Maker

    Isaiah 51:13; 54:5; 45:9 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “Your Maker”

  839. Thy Shade upon Thy Right Hand

    Psalm 121:5 KJV
    NASB: “…Your shade on your right hand”

  840. Tower of Salvation

    2 Samuel 22:51 KJV

  841. The Trinity—a word that does not appear in Scripture, but is used by Christians to refer to The One True God who is 3 persons: The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit
  842. The True Vine

    John 15:1 KJV, NKJV

  843. The Truth
    —transliteration from Hebrew
  844. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    צַדִּיק

    Meaning: “Righteous,” “Just”

    2 Chronicles 12:6; Ezra 9:15; Nehemiah 9:8; etc.

  845. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    צָמַח

    Meaning: “Bud,” “Branch,” “Sprout,” “Shoot” of David from David’s family tree

    Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15; Isaiah 4:2; Zec. 3:8; 6:12

  846. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Branch of the Lord”

    Isaiah 4:2; Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15; Hosea 8:7; Zechariah 3:8; 6:12

  847. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Rock,” “Strength”

    Psalm 18:2

  848. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Rock of Israel”

    2 Samuel 23:3

  849. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Rock of His Salvation

    Deuteronomy 32:15

    top

  850. The Uncorruptible God

    Romans 1:23 KJV, NKJV, NASB
    ESV: “The immortal God”

  851. The Unspeakable Gift of God

    2 Corinthians 9:15 KJV
    Other translations say the “indescribable gift” of God (2 Cor. 9:15 NKJV, NASB)

    top

  852. The Way, the Truth, and the Life

    John 14:6 KJV
    NKJV, NASB, ESV: “The way, and the truth, and the life”

  853. Who Calls Into Being that which Does Not Exist
    (literally: Who calls the things which do not exist as existing)

    Romans 4:17 NASB

  854. Who Will Have All Men to Be Saved

    1 Timothy 2:4

  855. Who Alone Works Wonders [miracles]

    Psalm 72:18 NASB

  856. Who Also Maketh Intercession for Us

    Romans 8:34 KJV
    NASB: “Who…intercedes for us”
    ESV: “Who indeed is interceding for us”

  857. Who Answered Me in the Day of My Distress

    Genesis 35:3 KJV and NKJV, NASB
    ESV: “who answers me in the day of my distress”

  858. Who Calleth Those Things Which Be Not As Though They Were

    Romans 4:17 KJV
    NIV: “the God who gives life to the dead and calls into being things that were not”
    ESV: “who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist”
    NASB: “who… calls into being that which does not exist”

  859. Who Comforteth Us in All Our Tribulation

    2 Corinthians 1:4 KJV
    NKJV: “Who comforts us in all our tribulation”
    NASB, ESV: “Who comforts us in all our affliction”

  860. Who Commanded the Light to Shine Out of Darkness

    2 Corinthians 4:6 KJV

  861. Who Covers Himself with Light

    Psalm 104:2 KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV
    NKJV: “Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment”
    NASB: “Covering Yourself with light as with a cloak”

  862. Who Crowneth Thee With Loving-kindness and Tender Mercies

    Psalm 103:4; Psalm 119:156; Psalm 145:9 KJV
    “Who crowns you with lovingkindness and tender mercies” —Psalm 103:4 NASB

  863. Who Daily Bears Our Burdens

    Psalm 68:19 NASB
    ESV: “who daily bears us up”
    KJV: “who daily loadeth us with benefits”
    NKJV: “Who daily loads us with benefits”

  864. Who Forgiveth All Thine Iniquities

    Psalm 103:3 KJV
    NIV: “who forgives all your sins”
    ESV: “who forgives all your iniquity”
    NASB: “Who pardons all your iniquities”

  865. Who Gave Himself for Our Sins

    Galatians 1:4

  866. Who Gives Life to the Dead

    Romans 4:17 NASB

  867. He Who Gives Food to All Flesh

    Psalm 136:25 NASB
    “he who giveth food to all flesh” —Psalm 136:25 KJV
    “he who gives food to all flesh” —ESV
    he who “gives food to every creature” —NIV

  868. Who Gives Rain Upon the Earth

    Job 5:10 KJV

  869. Who Gives Songs in the Night

    Job 35:10 KJV

  870. Who Gives Us Richly All Things to Enjoy

    1 Timothy 6:17 KJV

  871. Who has Abolished Death

    2 Timothy 1:10 KJV

  872. Who Has Also Sealed Us

    2 Corinthians 1:22 KJV
    “who…set his seal of ownership on us” —2 Cor. 1:22 NIV
    “who also has sealed us” —NKJV
    “who has also put his seal on us” —ESV
    “who also sealed us” —NASB

  873. Who Has Ascended Up Into Heaven

    Proverbs 30:4 KJV
    “Who has ascended into heaven and descended” —Prov.30:4 NASB
    “Who has ascended to heaven and come down” —Prov. 30:4 ESV
    “Who has gone up to heaven and come down” —Prov. 30:4 NIV

  874. Who Has Bound the Waters in a Garment

    Proverbs 30:4 KJV, NKJV
    “Who has wrapped the waters in His garment” —NASB
    “Who has wrapped up the waters in a garment” —ESV
    “Who has wrapped up the waters in a cloak” —NIV

  875. Who has called you unto his kingdom and glory

    1 Thessalonians 2:12 KJV

  876. Who Has Established All the Ends of the Earth

    Proverbs 30:4 KJV

  877. Who Has Gathered the Wind in His Fists

    Proverbs 30:4 KJV

  878. Who Has Given Me Counsel

    Psalm 16:7 KJV

  879. Who Has Given the Earnest of the Spirit In Our Hearts

    2 Corinthians 1:22 KJV

  880. Who Has His Eyes Like Unto a Flame of Fire

    Revelation 2:18 KJV

  881. Who Has Redeemed My Soul Out of All Adversity

    2 Samuel 4:9 KJV

  882. Who Has Redeemed Us From Our Enemies

    Psalm 136:24 KJV

  883. Who Has Saved Us and Called Us With a Holy Calling

    2 Timothy 1:9 KJV

  884. Who Has Done Great Things

    Psalm 71:19 KJV

  885. Who Hast Set Thy Glory Above The Heavens

    Psalm 8:1 KJV

  886. Who Heals All Thy Diseases

    Psalm 103:3 KJV

  887. Who Humbleth Himself to Behold the Things That Are In Heaven and in the Earth
  888. Who Is Above All, and Through All

    Ephesians 4:6 KJV

  889. Who Is Blessed For Ever

    Romans 1:25; 9:5 KJV

  890. Who Is Over All

    Romans 9:5 KJV

  891. Who Is Rich In Mercy

    Ephesians 2:4 KJV

  892. Who Is Worthy To Be Praised

    2 Samuel 22:4; Psalm 18:3 KJV

  893. Who Keepest Covenant and Mercy

    1 Kings 8:23; Nehemiah 9:32 KJV

  894. Who Laid the Foundations of the Earth, That It Should Not Be Removed For Ever

    Psalm 104:5 KJV

  895. Who Layeth the Beams Of His Chambers In the Waters

    Psalm 104:3 KJV

  896. Who liveth for ever and ever

    Daniel 4:34; Revelation 4:9; 10:6; 15:7 KJV

  897. Who Loved Me and Gave Himself For Me

    Galatians 2:20 KJV

  898. Who Maketh the Clouds His Chariot

    Psalm 104:3 KJV

  899. Who Maketh His Angels Spirits; His Ministers a Flaming Fire

    Psalm 104:4; Hebrews 1:7 KJV

  900. Who Only Does Wondrous Things

    Psalm 72:18 KJV, NKJV

  901. Who Only Hath Immortality

    “Who Alone Has Immortality”

    1 Timothy 6:16 KJV; 1 Tim. 6:16 NKJV

  902. Who Quickeneth All Things

    Who Gives Life To All Things

    1 Timothy 6:13 KJV; 1 Tim. 6:13 NKJV

  903. Who Quickens the Dead

    “Who Gives

    “Who Gives Life to the Dead”

    God the Father and God the Son

    Romans 4:17 KJV; Rom. 4:17 NASB; John 5:21 NASB

  904. Who Redeems Your Life from Destruction

    “Who Redeems Your Life From the Pit”

    Psalm 103:4 KJV; Psa. 103:4 NASB, etc.

  905. Who Remembered Us In Our Low Estate

    Who Remembered Us In Our Lowly State

    Psalm 136:23 KJV; Psa. 136:23 NKJV

  906. Who Satisfieth Thy Mouth With Good Things

    “Who Satisfies Your Mouth With Good Things

    Psalm 103:5 KJV; Psa. 103:5 NKJV

  907. Who Shall Establish You, and Keep You From Evil

    2 Thessalonians 3:3

  908. Who Stretchest Out The Heavens Like a Curtain

    Psalm 104:2 KJV

  909. Who Takes Vengeance

    Romans 3:5 KJV; Rom. 3:5 NKJV

  910. Who Walketh Upon the Wings of the Wind

    Psalm 104:3 KJV

  911. Who Was Delivered For Our Offenses

    Romans 4:25 KJV

  912. Who Was Faithful to Him That Appointed Him

    Hebrews 3:2 KJV

  913. Who Was Raised Again for Our Justification

    Romans 4:25 KJV

  914. Who Was With Me in the Way Which I Went

    Genesis 35:3 KJV; Gen. 35:3 NKJV

  915. A Witness to Us

    Hebrews 10:15 KJV

  916. Wonderful
    Hebrew:

    פֶּ֫לֶא

    —transliteration: or

    —transliteration:or

    Isaiah 9:6 KJV

  917. The Word

    John 1:1

  918. The Word of Life

    1 John 1:1 KJV, NASB, ESV

  919. [YH] or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    יָהּ

    This is a contraction of the name YHWH, consisting of its first 2 letters.


    The name

    yah

    ) means “the

    Appears in the word “ hallelujah ” (literally “Praise Jah”)The name Ishmaiah (Yishma) means “the Lord hears.”

  920. Yahweh or or —transliteration from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    יהוה

    Pious Jews carefully avoid saying this name, and substitute such words as , , “The Name,” etc.

  921. —transliteration from Hebrew

    Amos 4:13 NOG

    YLT: Jehovah, God of hosts
    CJB, TLV:
    NKJV, NASB, WYC: The Lord God of hosts

  922. —transliteration from Hebrew

    Genesis 1:4, etc. (NOG)—“ made earth and heaven”

  923. —transliteration from Hebrew
    Meaning: “Just One”

    Isaiah 26:7

  924. —transliteration from Greek
    Meaning: “God”
  925. or Y’shua or Joshua —transliteration from Hebrew
    or Jesus —English
    Hebrew:

    יְהוֹשׁוּעַ

    Meaning: “Jehovah is Salvation

  926. Yeshua or or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    יֵשׁוּעַ

    or

    ישוע

    See: Jesus and Joshua

  927. You Who Are Enthroned Above the Cherubim

    Psalm 80:1 NASB
    Psalm 80:1 NKJV: “You who dwell between the cherubim”
    Psalm 80:1 ESV: “You who are enthroned upon the
    Isaiah 37:16 NKJV: “the One who dwells between the cherubim”

    Psalm 80:1 NASBPsalm 80:1 NKJV: “You who dwell between the cherubim”Psalm 80:1 ESV: “You who are enthroned upon the cherubim Isaiah 37:16 NKJV: “the One who dwells between the cherubim”

  928. Your Heavenly Father

    Matthew 6:14 KJV; Matt. 6:26 KJV; Matt. 6:32 KJV; uke 11:13 KJV

  929. Your King

    Isaiah 43:15 KJV

  930. Your Holy One

    Isaiah 43:15 KJV

  931. Your Salvation

    Psalm 35:3 KJV

    top

  932. Zur or —transliterations from Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    צוּר

    Meaning: Rock

[Update] Ontological Arguments (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) | x god – Vietnamnhanvan

First published Thu Feb 8, 1996; substantive revision Wed Feb 6, 2019

In various ways, the account provided to this point is rough, and susceptible of improvement. Sections 1–6 in what follows provide some of the requisite embellishments, though—as is usually the case in philosophy—there are many issues taken up here which could be pursued at much greater length. Sections 7–9 take up some of the central questions at a slightly more sophisticated level of discussion. Section 10 is a quick overview of very recent work on ontological arguments:

Critiques of ontological arguments begin with Gaunilo, a contemporary of St. Anselm. Perhaps the best known criticisms of ontological arguments are due to Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason. Most famously, Kant claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that “existence” is a real predicate. However, as Bertrand Russell observed, it is much easier to be persuaded that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. This helps to explain why ontological arguments have fascinated philosophers for almost a thousand years.

In more recent times, Kurt Gödel, Charles Hartshorne, Norman Malcolm and Alvin Plantinga have all presented much-discussed ontological arguments which bear interesting connections to the earlier arguments of St. Anselm, Descartes and Leibniz. Of these, the most interesting are those of Gödel and Plantinga; in these cases, however, it is unclear whether we should really say that these authors claim that the arguments are proofs of the existence of God.

In the early eighteenth century, Gottfried Leibniz attempted to fill what he took to be a shortcoming in Descartes’ view. According to Leibniz, Descartes’ arguments fail unless one first shows that the idea of a supremely perfect being is coherent, or that it is possible for there to be a supremely perfect being. Leibniz argued that, since perfections are unanalysable, it is impossible to demonstrate that perfections are incompatible—and he concluded from this that all perfections can co-exist together in a single entity.

In the seventeenth century, René Descartes defended a family of similar arguments. For instance, in the Fifth Meditation, Descartes claims to provide a proof demonstrating the existence of God from the idea of a supremely perfect being. Descartes argues that there is no less contradiction in conceiving a supremely perfect being who lacks existence than there is in conceiving a triangle whose interior angles do not sum to 180 degrees. Hence, he supposes, since we do conceive a supremely perfect being—we do have the idea of a supremely perfect being—we must conclude that a supremely perfect being exists.

The first, and best-known, ontological argument was proposed by St. Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century C.E. In his Proslogion, St. Anselm claims to derive the existence of God from the concept of a being than which no greater can be conceived. St. Anselm reasoned that, if such a being fails to exist, then a greater being—namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived, and which exists—can be conceived. But this would be absurd: nothing can be greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. So a being than which no greater can be conceived—i.e., God—exists.

Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world—e.g., from reason alone. In other words, ontological arguments are arguments from what are typically alleged to be none but analytic, a priori and necessary premises to the conclusion that God exists.

1078:
St. Anselm, Proslogion. Followed soon after by
Gaunilo’s critique In Behalf of the Fool.

1264:
St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa. Criticises an argument which
somehow descends from St. Anselm.

1637:
Descartes, Discourse on Method. The argument of
Discourse 4 is further elaborated in the Meditations. The
Objections—particularly those of Caterus and
Gassendi—and the Replies contain much valuable
discussion of the Cartesian arguments.

c1680:
Spinoza, Ethics. Intimations of a defensible
mereological ontological argument, albeit one whose conclusion is not
(obviously) endowed with religious significance.

1709:
Leibniz, New Essays Concerning Human Understanding.
Contains Leibniz’s attempt to complete the Cartesian argument by
showing that the Cartesian conception of God is not inconsistent.

1776:
Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Part IX is
a general attack on a priori arguments (both analytic and
synthetic). Includes a purported demonstration that no such arguments
can be any good.

1787:
Kant, Critique of Pure Reason. Contains famous attack
on traditional theistic arguments. Three objections to “the
ontological argument”, including the famous objection based on
the dictum that existence is not a predicate.

1831:
Hegel, Lectures of 1831. In these lectures, Hegel says
that “the ontological argument” succeeds. However, he does
not make it clear what he takes the premises of “the ontological
argument” to be; and nor does he make it clear what it would be
for “the ontological argument” to succeed. Some scholars
have claimed that the entire Hegelian corpus constitutes an
ontological argument.

1884:
Frege, Foundations of Arithmetic. Existence is a
second-order predicate. First-order existence claims are meaningless.
So ontological arguments—whose conclusions are first-order
existence claims—are doomed.

1941:
Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of God. Defence of modal
ontological arguments, allegedly derived from Proslogion
3.

1970:
Lewis, “Anselm and Actuality”. A key critique of
ontological arguments. All ontological arguments are either invalid or
question-begging; moreover, in many cases, they have two closely
related readings, one of which falls into each of the above
categories.

1974:
Plantinga, The Nature of Necessity. Plantinga’s
“victorious” modal ontological argument.

1995:
Gödel, Collected Works Volume III.
Gödel’s ontological argument.

2004:
Sobel, Logic and Theism. Detailed critique of
ontological arguments. See, especially, chapters 2–4, pp.
29–167.

For a useful discussion of the history of ontological arguments in the
modern period, see Harrelson 2009.

According to a modification of the taxonomy of Oppy 1995, there are
eight major kinds of ontological arguments, viz:

  1. definitional ontological arguments;
  2. conceptual (or hyperintensional) ontological arguments;
  3. modal ontological arguments;
  4. Meinongian ontological arguments;
  5. experiential ontological arguments;
  6. mereological ontological arguments;
  7. higher-order ontological arguments; and
  8. ‘Hegelian’ ontological arguments;

Examples of all but the last follow. These are mostly toy examples.
But they serve to highlight the deficiencies which more complex
examples also share.

Note: No example is provided of a ‘Hegelian’ ontological
argument. There is no extent discussion that states clearly the full
set of premises of a ‘Hegelian’ ontological argument. (See
Redding and Bubbio 2014 for recent discussion of this point.)

  1. God is a being which has every perfection. (This is true as a matter
    of definition.) Existence is a perfection. Hence God exists.

  2. I conceive of a being than which no greater can be conceived. If a
    being than which no greater can be conceived does not exist, then I
    can conceive of a being greater than a being than which no greater can
    be conceived—namely, a being than which no greater can be
    conceived that exists. I cannot conceive of a being greater than a
    being than which no greater can be conceived. Hence, a being than
    which no greater can be conceived exists.

  3. It is possible that that God exists. God is not a contingent being,
    i.e., either it is not possible that God exists, or it is necessary
    that God exists. Hence, it is necessary that God exists. Hence, God
    exists. (See Malcolm 1960, Hartshorne 1965, and Plantinga 1974 for
    closely related arguments.)

  4. [It is analytic, necessary and a priori that] Each instance of the
    schema “The F G is F” expresses a truth.
    Hence the sentence “The existent perfect being is
    existent” expresses a truth. Hence, the existent perfect being
    is existent. Hence, God is existent, i.e. God exists. (The last step
    is justified by the observation that, as a matter of definition, if
    there is exactly one existent perfect being, then that being is
    God.)

  5. The word ‘God’ has a meaning that is revealed in religious
    experience. The word ‘God’ has a meaning only if God
    exists. Hence, God exists. (See Rescher 1959 for a live version of
    this argument.)

  6. I exist. Therefore something exists. Whenever a bunch of things exist,
    their mereological sum also exists. Therefore the sum of all things
    exists. Therefore God—the sum of all
    things—exists.

  7. Say that a God-property is a property that is possessed by God in all
    and only those worlds in which God exists. Not all properties are God
    properties. Any property entailed by a collection of God-properties is
    itself a God-property. The God-properties include necessary existence,
    necessary omnipotence, necessary omniscience, and necessary perfect
    goodness. Hence, there is a necessarily existent, necessarily
    omnipotent, necessarily omniscient, and necessarily perfectly good
    being (namely, God).

Of course, this taxonomy is not exclusive: an argument can belong to
several categories at once. Moreover, an argument can be ambiguous
between a range of readings, each of which belongs to different
categories. This latter fact may help to explain part of the curious
fascination of ontological arguments. Finally, the taxonomy can be
further specialised: there are, for example, at least four importantly
different kinds of modal ontological arguments which should be
distinguished. (See, e.g., Ross 1969 for a rather different kind of
modal ontological argument.)

It is not easy to give a good characterisation of ontological
arguments. The traditional characterisation involves the use of
problematic notions—analyticity, necessity, and a
priority—and also fails to apply to many arguments to which
defenders have affixed the label “ontological”. (Consider,
for example, the claim that I conceive of a being than which no
greater can be conceived. This claim is clearly not analytic (its
truth doesn’t follow immediately from the meanings of the words
used to express it), nor necessary (I might never have entertained the
concept), nor a priori (except perhaps in my own case, though
even this is unclear—perhaps even I don’t know
independently of experience that I have this concept.)) However, it is
unclear how that traditional characterisation should be improved upon.

Perhaps one might resolve to use the label “ontological
argument” for any argument which gets classified as “an
ontological argument” by its proponent(s). This procedure would
make good sense if one thought that there is a natural
kind—ontological arguments—which our practice carves out,
but for which is hard to specify defining conditions. Moreover, this
procedure can be adapted as a pro tem stop gap: when there is
a better definition to hand, that definition will be adopted instead.
On the other hand, it seems worthwhile to attempt a more informative
definition.

Focus on the case of ontological arguments for the conclusion that God
exists. One characteristic feature of these arguments is the use which
they make of “referential vocabulary”—names,
definite descriptions, indefinite descriptions, quantified noun
phrases, etc.—whose ontological commitments—for
occurrences of this vocabulary in “referential
position”—non-theists do not accept.

Theists and non-theists alike (can) agree that there is
spatio-temporal, or causal, or nomic, or modal structure to the world
(the basis for cosmological arguments); and that there are certain
kinds of complexity of organisation, structure and function in the
world (the basis for teleological arguments); and so on. But theists
and non-theists are in dispute about whether there are perfect beings,
or beings than which no greater can be conceived, or … ;
thus, theists and non-theists are in dispute about the
indirect subject matter of the premises of ontological
arguments.

Of course, the premises of ontological arguments often do not deal
directly with perfect beings, beings than which no greater can be
conceived, etc.; rather, they deal with descriptions of, or ideas of,
or concepts of, or the possibility of the existence of, these things.
However, the basic point remains: ontological arguments require the
use of vocabulary which non-theists should certainly find problematic
when it is used in ontologically committing contexts (i.e not inside
the scope of prophylactic operators—such as “according to
the story” or “by the lights of theists” or
“by the definition”—which can be taken to afford
protection against unwanted commitments).

Note that this characterisation does not beg the question against the
possibility of the construction of a successful ontological
argument—i.e., it does not lead immediately to the conclusion
that all ontological arguments are question-begging (in virtue of the
ontologically committing vocabulary which they employ). For it may be
that the vocabulary in question only gets used in premises under the
protection of prophylactic operators (which ward off the unwanted
commitments.) Of course, there will then be questions about whether
the resulting arguments can possibly be valid—how could the
commitments turn up in the conclusion if they are not there in the
premises?—but those are further questions, which would remain to
be addressed.

Before we turn to assessment of ontological arguments, we need to get
clear about what the proper intended goals of ontological arguments
can be. Suppose we think of arguments as having advocates and targets:
when an advocate presents an argument to a target, the goal of the
advocate is to bring about some change in the target. What might be
the targets of ontological arguments, and what might be the changes
that advocates of these arguments aim to bring about in those targets?

Here are some proposals; no doubt the reader can think of others:

  1. The targets might be atheists, and the goal might be to turn them
    into theists.
  2. The targets might be agnostics, and the goal might be to turn them
    into theists.
  3. The targets might be theists, and the goal might be to improve the
    doxastic position of theists.
  4. The targets might be professional philosophers, and the goal might
    be to advance understanding of the consequences of adopting particular
    logical rules, or treating existence as a real predicate, or allowing
    definitions to have existential import, or the like.
  5. The targets might be undergraduate philosophy students, and the
    goal might be to give them some sufficiently frustrating examples on
    which to cut their critical teeth.

In the coming discussion, it will be supposed that the targets are
atheists and agnostics, and that the goal is to turn them into
theists. Suppose that an advocate presents an ontological argument to
a target. What conditions must that arguments satisfy if it is fit for
its intended purpose? A plausible suggestion is that, minimally, it
should make the targets recognise that they have good reason to accept
the conclusion of the argument that they did not recognise that they
have prior to the presentation of the argument. Adopting this
plausible suggestion provides the following criterion: a successful
ontological argument is one that should make atheists and agnostics
recognise that they have good reason to believe that God exists that
they did not recognise that they have prior to the presentation of the
argument. Note that this criterion has a normative dimension: it
adverts to what atheists and agnostics should do when presented with
the argument.

There is an important discussion to be had about whether we should
suppose that the targets of ontological arguments are atheists and
agnostics, and that the goal is to turn them into theists. However, it
is simply beyond the scope of this entry to pursue that discussion
here.

Objections to ontological arguments take many forms. Some objections
are intended to apply only to particular ontological arguments, or
particular forms of ontological arguments; other objections are
intended to apply to all ontological arguments. It is a controversial
question whether there are any successful general objections to
ontological arguments.

One general criticism of ontological arguments which have appeared
hitherto is this: none of them is persuasive, i.e., none of
them provides those who do not already accept the conclusion that God
exists—and who are reasonable, reflective, well-informed,
etc.—with either a pro tanto reason or an
all-things-considered reason to accept that conclusion. Any reading of
any ontological argument which has been produced so far which is
sufficiently clearly stated to admit of evaluation yields a result
which is invalid, or possesses a set of premises which it is clear in
advance that no reasonable, reflective, well-informed, etc.
non-theists will accept, or has a benign conclusion which has no
religious significance, or else falls prey to more than one of the
above failings.

For each of the families of arguments introduced in the earlier
taxonomy, we can give general reasons why arguments of that family
fall under the general criticism. In what follows, we shall apply
these general considerations to the exemplar arguments introduced in
section 2.

(1) Definitional arguments: These are arguments in which ontologically
committing vocabulary is introduced solely via a definition. An
obvious problem is that claims involving that vocabulary cannot then
be non-question-beggingly detached from the scope of that definition.
(The inference from ‘By definition, God is an existent
being’ to ‘God exists’ is patently invalid; while
the inference to ‘By definition, God exists’ is valid, but
uninteresting. In the example given earlier, the premises license the
claim that, as a matter of definition, God possesses the perfection of
existence. But, as just noted, there is no valid inference from this
claim to the further claim that God exists.)

(2) Conceptual arguments: These are arguments in which ontologically
committing vocabulary is introduced solely within the scope of
hyperintensional operators (e.g. ‘believes that’,
‘conceives of’, etc.). Often, these operators have two
readings, one of which can cancel ontological commitment, and the
other of which cannot. On the reading which can give cancellation (as
in the most likely reading of ‘John believes in Santa
Claus’), the inference to a conclusion in which the ontological
commitment is not cancelled will be invalid. On the reading which
cannot cancel ontological commitment (as in that reading of
‘John thinks about God’ which can only be true if there is
a God to think about), the premises are question-begging: they incur
ontological commitments which non-theists reject. In our sample
argument, the claim, that I conceive of an existent being than which
no greater being can be conceived, admits of the two kinds of readings
just distinguished. On the one hand, on the reading which gives
cancellation, the inference to the conclusion that there is a being
than which no greater can be conceived is plainly invalid. On the
other hand, on the reading in which there is no cancellation, it is
clear that this claim is one which no reasonable, etc. non-theist will
accept: if you doubt that there is a being than which no greater can
be conceived, then, of course, you doubt whether you can have thoughts
about such a being.

(3) Modal arguments: These are arguments with premises which concern
modal claims about God, i.e., claims about the possibility or
necessity of God’s attributes and existence. Suppose that we
agree to think about possibility and necessity in terms of possible
worlds: a claim is possibly true just in case it is true in at least
one possible world; a claim is necessarily true just in case it is
true in every possible world; and a claim is contingent just in case
it is true in some possible worlds and false in others. Some theists
hold that God is a necessarily existent being, i.e., that God exists
in every possible world; all non-theists reject the claim that God
exists in the actual world. The sample argument consists, in effect,
of two premises:

  • God exists in at least one possible world.
  • God exists in all possible worlds if God exists in any.

A minimally rational non-theist cannot accept both of these premises
– they entail that God exists in every possible world whereas a
minimally rational non-theist maintains that there is at least one
possible world in which God does not exist. Given that a minimally
rational non-theist says that there is at least one possible world in
which God does not exist, such a non-theist can offer a parallel
counterargument with the following two premises:

  • God fails to exist in at least one possible world.
  • God exists in all possible worlds if God exists in any.

These premises entail that God exists in no possible world, and hence
that God does not exist in the actual world. Considered together, the
argument and the counterargument just mentioned plainly do not give
anyone a reason to prefer theism to non-theism, and nor do they give
anyone a reason to prefer non-theism to theism. So the sample argument
is unsuccessful: it doesn’t supply an all-things-considered
reason to prefer theism to non-theism (just as the counterargument
doesn’t supply an all-things-considered reason to prefer
non-theism to theism).

(4) Meinongian arguments: These are arguments which depend somehow or
other on Meinongian theories of objects. Consider the schema
‘The F G is F’. Naive Meinongians will
suppose that if F is instantiated with any property, then the
result is true (and, quite likely, necessary, analytic and a priori).
So, for example, the round square is round; the bald current King of
France is bald; and so on. However, more sophisticated Meinongians
will insist that there must be some restriction on the substitution
instances for F, in order to allow one to draw the obvious and
important ontological distinction between the following two groups:
{Bill Clinton, the sun, the Eiffel Tower} and {Santa Claus, Mickey
Mouse, the round square}. Choice of vocabulary here is controversial:
Let us suppose (for the sake of example) that the right thing to say
is that the former things exist and the latter do not. Under this
supposition, ‘existent’ will not be a suitable
substitution instance for F—obviously, since we all agree that
there is no existent round square. Of course, nothing hangs on the
choice of ‘existent’ as the crucial piece of vocabulary.
The point is that non-theists are not prepared to include god(s) in
the former group of objects—and hence will be unpersuaded by any
argument which tries to use whatever vocabulary is used to
discriminate between the two classes as the basis for an argument that
god(s) belong to the former group. (Cognoscenti will recognise that
the crucial point is that Meinongian ontological arguments fail to
respect the distinction between nuclear (assumptible, characterising)
properties and non-nuclear (non-assumptible, non-characterising)
properties. It should, of course, be noted that neither Meinong, nor
any of his well-known modern supporters—e.g. Terence Parsons,
Richard Sylvan—ever endorses a Meinongian ontological argument;
and it should also be noted that most motivate the distinction between
nuclear and non-nuclear properties in part by a need to avoid
Meinongian ontological arguments. The reason for calling these
arguments “Meinongian” is that they rely on quantification
over—or reference to—non-existent objects; there is no
pejorative intent in the use of this label.)

(5) Experiential arguments: These are arguments which try to make use
of ‘externalist’ or ‘object-involving’
accounts of content. It should not be surprising that they fail. After
all, those accounts of content need to have something to say about
expressions which fail to refer (‘Santa Claus’,
‘phlogiston’, etc.). But, however the account goes,
non-theists will insist that expressions which purport to refer to
god(s) should be given exactly the same kind of treatment.

(6) Mereological arguments: Those who dislike mereology will not be
impressed by these arguments. However, even those who accept
principles of unrestricted composition—i.e., who accept
principles which claim, e.g., that, whenever there are some things,
there is something which is the sum or fusion of all of those
things—need not be perturbed by them: for it is plausible to
think that the conclusions of these arguments have no religious
significance whatsoever—they are merely arguments for, e.g., the
existence of the physical universe.

(7) Higher-Order arguments: The key to these arguments is the
observation that any collection of properties, that (a) does not
include all properties and (b) is closed under entailment, is possibly
jointly instantiated. If it is impossible that God exists — as
all who deny that God exists suppose, on the further assumption that,
were God to exist, God would exist of necessity — then it cannot
be true both that the God-properties are closed under entailment and
that there are properties that are not God-properties. Those who take
themselves to have good independent reason to deny that there are any
gods will take themselves to have good independent reason to deny that
there are God-properties that form a non-trivial collection that is
closed under entailment.

Even if the forgoing analyses are correct, it is important to note
that no argument has been given for the conclusion that no ontological
argument can be successful. Even if all of the kinds of
arguments produced to date are pretty clearly unsuccessful—i.e.,
not such as ought to give non-theists reason to accept the conclusion
that God exists—it remains an open question whether there is
some other kind of hitherto undiscovered ontological argument which
does succeed. (Perhaps it is worth adding here that there is fairly
widespread consensus, even amongst theists, that no known ontological
arguments for the existence of God are persuasive. Most categories of
ontological argument have some actual defenders; but none has a large
following.)

Many other objections to (some) ontological arguments have been
proposed. All of the following have been alleged to be the key to the
explanation of the failure of (at least some) ontological arguments:
(1) existence is not a predicate (see, e.g., Kant, Smart 1955, Alston
1960); (2) the concept of god is meaningless/incoherent/ inconsistent
(see, e.g., Findlay 1949); (3) ontological arguments are ruled out by
“the missing explanation argument” (see Johnston 1992; (4)
ontological arguments all trade on mistaken uses of singular terms
(see, e.g., Barnes 1972; (5) existence is not a perfection (see almost
any textbook in philosophy of religion); (6) ontological arguments
presuppose a Meinongian approach to ontology (see, e.g., Dummett
1993); and (7) ontological arguments are question-begging, i.e.,
presuppose what they set out to prove (see, e.g., Rowe 1989). There
are many things to say about these objections: the most important
point is that almost all of them require far more controversial
assumptions than non-theists require in order to be able to reject
ontological arguments with good conscience. Trying to support most of
these claims merely in order to beat up on ontological arguments is
like using a steamroller to crack a nut (in circumstances in which one
is unsure that one can get the steamroller to move!).

Of course, all of the above discussion is directed merely to the claim
that ontological arguments are not dialectically
efficacious—i.e., they give reasonable non-theists no reason to
change their views. It might be wondered whether there is some other
use which ontological arguments have—e.g., as Plantinga claims,
in establishing the reasonableness of theism. This seems unlikely.
After all, at best these arguments show that certain sets of sentences
(beliefs, etc.) are inconsistent—one cannot reject the
conclusions of these arguments while accepting their premises. But the
arguments themselves say nothing about the reasonableness of accepting
the premisses. So the arguments themselves say nothing about the
(unconditional) reasonableness of accepting the conclusions of these
arguments. Those who are disposed to think that theism is irrational
need find nothing in ontological arguments to make them change their
minds (and those who are disposed to think that theism is true should
take no comfort from them either).

Positive ontological arguments—i.e., arguments FOR the existence
of god(s)—invariably admit of various kinds of parodies, i.e.,
parallel arguments which seem at least equally acceptable to
non-theists, but which establish absurd or contradictory conclusions.
For many positive ontological arguments, there are parodies which
purport to establish the non-existence of god(s); and for many
positive ontological arguments there are lots (usually a large
infinity!) of similar arguments which purport to establish the
existence of lots (usually a large infinity) of distinct god-like
beings. Here are some modest examples:

(1) By definition, God is a non-existent being who has every (other)
perfection. Hence God does not exist.

(2) I conceive of a being than which no greater can be conceived
except that it only ever creates universes. If such a being
does not exist, then we can conceive of a greater being—namely,
one exactly like it which does exist. But I cannot conceive of a being
which is greater in this way. Hence, a being than which no greater can
be conceived except that it only ever creates universes
exists.

(3) It is possible that God does not exist. God is not a contingent
being, i.e., either it is not possible that God exists, or it is
necessary that God exists. Hence it is not possible that God exists.
Hence God does not exist.

(4) It is analytic, necessary, and a priori that the is
. Hence, the existent perfect being who creates exactly
universes is existent. Hence the perfect being who creates
exactly universes exists.

There are many kinds of parodies of Ontological Arguments. The aim is
to construct arguments which non-theists can reasonably claim to have
no more reason to accept than the original Ontological Arguments
themselves. Of course, theists may well be able to hold that the
originals are sound, and the parodies not—but that is an
entirely unrelated issue. (All theists—and no
non-theists—should grant that the following argument is sound,
given that the connectives are to be interpreted classically:
“Either 2+2=5, or God exists. Not 2+2=5. Hence God
exists.” This argument contributes nothing positive to any case
for theism, just as the argument “Either 2+2=5, or God does not
exist. Not 2+2=5. Hence God does not exist.” contributes nothing
positive to the case for non-theism.)

There are many parodic discussions of Ontological Arguments in the
literature. See, for example, the parody provided by Raymond Smullyan
(1984), in which the argument is attributed to “the unknown
Dutch theologian van Dollard”. A relatively recent addition to
the genre is described in Grey 2000, though the date of its
construction is uncertain. It is the work of Douglas Gasking, one-time
Professor of Philosophy at the University of Melbourne (with
emendations by William Grey and Denis Robinson):

  1. The creation of the world is the most marvellous achievement
    imaginable.
  2. The merit of an achievement is the product of (a) its intrinsic
    quality, and (b) the ability of its creator.
  3. The greater the disability or handicap of the creator, the more
    impressive the achievement.
  4. The most formidable handicap for a creator would be
    non-existence.
  5. Therefore, if we suppose that the universe is the product of an
    existent creator, we can conceive a greater being—namely, one
    who created everything while not existing.
  6. An existing God, therefore, would not be a being than which a
    greater cannot be conceived, because an even more formidable and
    incredible creator would be a God which did not exist.
  7. (Hence) God does not exist.

This parody—at least in its current state—is inferior to
other parodies in the literature, including the early parodies of
Gaunilo and Caterus. To mention but one difficulty, while we
might suppose that it would be a greater achievement to
create something if one did not exist than if one did exist, it
doesn’t follow from this that a non-existent creator is greater
(qua being) than an existent creator. Perhaps it might be
replied that this objection fails to take the first premise into
account: if the creation of the world really is “the most
marvellous achievement imaginable”, then surely there is some
plausibility to the claim that the creator must have been non-existent
(since that would make the achievement more marvellous than it would
otherwise have been). But what reason is there to believe that the
creation of the world is “the most marvellous achievement
imaginable”, in the sense which is required for this argument?
Surely it is quite easy to imagine even more marvellous
achievements—e.g., the creation of many worlds at least as good
as this one! (Of course, one might also want to say that, in fact, one
cannot conceive of a non-existent being’s actually creating
something: that is literally inconceivable. Etc.)

Chambers 2000 and Siegwart 2014 provide interesting recent discussions
of Gaunilo’s parody of the Proslogion II argument.

There is a small, but steadily growing, literature on the ontological
arguments which Gödel developed in his notebooks, but which did
not appear in print until well after his death. These arguments have
been discussed, annotated and amended by various leading logicians:
the upshot is a family of arguments with impeccable logical
credentials. (Interested readers are referred to Sobel 1987, Anderson
1990, Adams 1995b, and Hazen 1999 for the history of these arguments,
and for the scholarly annotations and emendations.) Here, we give
a brief presentation of the version of the argument which is developed
by Anderson, and then make some comments on that version.
This discussion follows the presentation and discussion in Oppy 1996,
2000.

Definition 1: x is God-like if and only if x has as
essential properties those and only those properties which are
positive

Definition 2: A is an essence of x if and only if
for every property B, x has B necessarily
if and only if A entails B

Definition 3: x necessarily exists if and only if every
essence of x is necessarily exemplified

Axiom 1: If a property is positive, then its negation is not
positive.

Axiom 2: Any property entailed by—i.e., strictly implied
by—a positive property is positive

Axiom 3: The property of being God-like is positive

Axiom 4: If a property is positive, then it is necessarily
positive

Axiom 5: Necessary existence is positive

Axiom 6: For any property P, if P is positive, then
being necessarily P is positive.

Theorem 1: If a property is positive, then it is consistent, i.e.,
possibly exemplified.

Corollary 1: The property of being God-like is consistent.

Theorem 2: If something is God-like, then the property of being
God-like is an essence of that thing.

Theorem 3: Necessarily, the property of being God-like is
exemplified.

Given a sufficiently generous conception of properties, and granted
the acceptability of the underlying modal logic, the listed theorems
do follow from the axioms. (This point was argued in detail by Dana
Scott, in lecture notes which circulated for many years and which were
transcribed in Sobel 1987 and published in Sobel 2004. It is also made
by Sobel, Anderson, and Adams.) So, criticisms of the argument are
bound to focus on the axioms, or on the other assumptions which are
required in order to construct the proof.

Some philosophers have denied the acceptability of the underlying
modal logic. And some philosophers have rejected generous conceptions
of properties in favour of sparse conceptions according to which only
some predicates express properties. But suppose that we adopt neither
of these avenues of potential criticism of the proof. What else might
we say against it?

One important point to note is that no definition of the
notion of “positive property” is supplied with the proof.
At most, the various axioms which involve this concept can be taken to
provide a partial implicit definition. If we suppose that the
“positive properties” form a set, then the axioms provide
us with the following information about this set:

  1. If a property belongs to the set, then its negation does not
    belong to the set.
  2. The set is closed under entailment.
  3. The property of having as essential properties just those
    properties which are in the set is itself a member of the set.
  4. The set has exactly the same members in all possible worlds.
  5. The property of necessary existence is in the set.
  6. If a property is in the set, then the property of having that
    property necessarily is also in the set.

On Gödel’s theoretical assumptions, we can show that
any set which conforms to (1)–(6) is such that the
property of having as essential properties just those properties which
are in that set is exemplified. Gödel wants us to
conclude that there is just one intuitive, theologically interesting
set of properties which is such that the property of having as
essential properties just the properties in that set is exemplified.
But, on the one hand, what reason do we have to think that there is
any theologically interesting set of properties which
conforms to the Gödelian specification? And, on the other hand,
what reason do we have to deny that, if there is one set of
theologically interesting set of properties which conforms to the
Gödelian specification, then there are many theologically
threatening sets of properties which also conform to that
specification?

In particular, there is some reason to think that the Gödelian
ontological argument goes through just as well—or just as
badly—with respect to other sets of properties (and in ways
which are damaging to the original argument). Suppose that there is
some set of independent properties {I,
G1, G2, …} which can be
used to generate the set of positive properties by closure under
entailment and “necessitation”.
(“Independence” means: no one of the properties in the set
is entailed by all the rest. “Necessitation” means: if
P is in the set, then so is necessarily having P.
I is the property of having as essential properties just
those properties which are in the set. G1,
G2, … are further properties, of which we
require at least two.) Consider any proper subset of the set
{G1, G2,
…}—{H1, H2,
…}, say—and define a new generating set {I*,
H1, H2, …}, where
I* is the property of having as essential properties just
those properties which are in the newly generated set. A
“proof” parallel to that offered by Gödel
“establishes” that there is a being which has as essential
properties just those properties in this new set. If there are as few
as 7 independent properties in the original generating set, then we
shall be able to establish the existence of 720
distinct“God-like” creatures by the kind of argument which
Gödel offers. (The creatures are distinct because each has a
different set of essential properties.)

Even if the above considerations are sufficient to cast doubt on the
credentials of Gödel’s “proof”, they do not
pinpoint where the “proof” goes wrong. If we accept that
the role of Axioms 1, 2, 4, and 6 is really just to constrain the
notion of “positive property” in the right way—or,
in other words, if we suppose that Axioms 1, 2, 4, and 6 are
“analytic truths” about “positive
properties”—then there is good reason for opponents of the
“proof” to be sceptical about Axioms 3 and 5. Kant would
not have been happy with Axiom 5; and there is at least some reason to
think that whether the property of being God-like is
“positive” ought to depend upon whether or not there is a
God-like being.

For detailed recent discussion of Gödel’s argument, see
Kovac (2003), Pruss (2009) (2018), and Swietorzecka (2016).

The “victorious” modal ontological argument of Plantinga
1974 goes roughly as follows: Say that an entity possesses
“maximal excellence” if and only if it is omnipotent,
omniscient, and morally perfect. Say, further, that an entity possesses
“maximal greatness” if and only if it possesses maximal
excellence in every possible world—that is, if and only if it is
necessarily existent and necessarily maximally excellent. Then
consider the following argument:

  1. There is a possible world in which there is an entity which
    possesses maximal greatness.
  2. (Hence) There is an entity which possesses maximal greatness.

Under suitable assumptions about the nature of accessibility relations
between possible worlds, this argument is valid: from it is possible
that it is necessary that p, one can infer that it is
necessary that p. Setting aside the possibility that one
might challenge this widely accepted modal principle, it seems that
opponents of the argument are bound to challenge the acceptability of
the premise.

And, of course, they do. Let’s just run the argument in
reverse.

  1. There is no entity which possesses maximal greatness.
  2. (Hence) There is no possible world in which there is an entity
    which possesses maximal greatness.

Plainly enough, if you do not already accept the claim that there is
an entity which possesses maximal greatness, then you won’t
agree that the first of these arguments is more acceptable than the
second. So, as a proof of the existence of a being which possesses
maximal greatness, Plantinga’s argument seems to be a
non-starter.

Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, Plantinga himself agrees: the
“victorious” modal ontological argument is not a proof of
the existence of a being which possesses maximal greatness. But how,
then, is it “victorious”? Plantinga writes: “Our
verdict on these reformulated versions of St. Anselm’s argument
must be as follows. They cannot, perhaps, be said to prove or
establish their conclusion. But since it is rational to
accept their central premise, they do show that it is rational to
accept that conclusion” (Plantinga 1974, 221).

It is clear that Plantinga’s argument does not show what he
claims that it shows. Consider, again, the argument: “Either God
exists, or 2+2=5. It is not the case that 2+2=5. So God exists.”
It is a mistake for a theist to say: “Since the premise is
true (and the argument is valid), this argument
shows that the conclusion of the argument is
true”, just as it is a mistake for a non-theist to say
that the argument “Either God does not exist, or 2+2=5. It is
not the case that 2+2=5. So God does not exist.” shows that God
does not exist. Similarly, it is a mistake for a theist to say:
“Since it is rational to accept the premises (and the
argument is valid), this argument shows that it is
rational to accept the claim that God exists”, just as
it is a mistake for the non-theist to say: “Since it is
rational to accept the premises of the non-theistic argument
(and that argument is valid), the non-theistic argument shows
that it is rational to accept the claim that God does not
exist”. While there is room for dispute about exactly why all of
this is so, it is plausible to say that, in each case, any even
minimally rational person who has doubts about the claimed status of
the conclusion of the argument will have exactly the same doubts about
the claimed status of the premise. If, for example, I doubt that it is
rational to accept the claim that God exists, then you can be quite
sure that I will doubt that it is rational to accept the claim that
either 2+2=5 or God exists. But the very same point can be made about
Plantinga’s argument: anyone with even minimal rationality who
understands the premise and the conclusion of the argument, and who
has doubts about the claim that it is rationally permissible to
believe that there is an entity which possesses maximal greatness,
will have exactly the same doubts about the claim that it is
rationally permissible to believe that there is a possible world in
which there is an entity which possesses maximal greatness.

For further discussion of Plantinga’s argument, see—for
example—Adams 1988, Chandler 1993, Oppy 1995 (70–78,
248–259), Rasmussen (2018), Tooley 1981, and van Inwagen
1977).

There is an enormous literature on the material in Proslogion
II-III. Some commentators deny that St. Anselm tried to put
forward any proofs of the existence of God. Even among commentators
who agree that St. Anselm intended to prove the existence of God,
there is disagreement about where the proof is located. Some
commentators claim that the main proof is in Proslogion II,
and that the rest of the work draws out corollaries of that proof
(see, e.g., Charlesworth 1965). Other commentators claim that the main
proof is in Prologion III, and that the proof in
Proslogion II is merely an inferior first attempt (see, e.g.,
Malcolm 1960). Yet other commentators claim that there is a single
proof which spans at least Proslogion II-III—see, e.g.,
Campbell 1976 and, perhaps, the entire work—see, e.g., La Croix
1972. In what follows, we ignore this aspect of the controversy about the
Proslogion. Instead, we focus just on the question of the
analysis of the material in Proslogion II on the assumption
that there is an independent argument for the existence of God which
is given therein.

Here is one translation of the crucial part of Proslogion II
(due to William Mann (1972, 260–1); alternative translations can
be found in Barnes 1972, Campbell 1976, Charlesworth 1965, and
elsewhere):

Thus even the fool is convinced that something than which nothing
greater can be conceived is in the understanding, since when he hears
this, he understands it; and whatever is understood is in the
understanding. And certainly that than which a greater cannot be
conceived cannot be in the understanding alone. For if it is even in
the understanding alone, it can be conceived to exist in reality also,
which is greater. Thus if that than which a greater cannot be
conceived is in the understanding alone, then that than which a
greater cannot be conceived is itself that than which a greater can be
conceived. But surely this cannot be. Thus without doubt something
than which a greater cannot be conceived exists, both in the
understanding and in reality.

There have been many ingenious attempts to find an argument which can
be expressed in modern logical formalism, which is logically valid,
and which might plausibly be claimed to be the argument which
is expressed in this passage. To take a few prime examples, Adams
1971, Barnes 1972 and Oppenheimer and Zalta 1991 have all produced
formally valid analyses of the argument in this passage. We begin with
a brief presentation of each of these analyses, preceded by a
presentation of the formulation of the argument given by Plantinga
1967, and including a presentation of some of the formulations of
Lewis 1970. (Chambers 2000 works with the analysis of Adams 1971.)

  1. God exists in the understanding but not in reality. (Assumption for
    reductio)

  2. Existence in reality is greater than existence in the understanding
    alone. (Premise)

  3. A being having all of God’s properties plus existence in reality
    can be conceived. (Premise)

  4. A being having all of God’s properties plus existence in reality
    is greater than God. (From (1) and (2).)

  5. A being greater than God can be conceived. (From (3) and
    (4).)

  6. It is false that a being greater than God can be conceived. (From
    definition of “God”.)

  7. Hence, it is false that God exists in the understanding but not in
    reality. (From (1), (5), (6).)

  8. God exists in the understanding. (Premise, to which even the Fool
    agrees.)

  9. Hence God exists in reality. (From (7), (8).)

See Plantinga 1967.

  1. The Fool understands the expression “the being than which no
    greater can be conceived”. (Premise)

  2. If a person understands an expression “b”, then
    b is in that person’s understanding. (Premise)

  3. If a thing is in a person’s understanding, then the person can
    conceive of that thing’s existing in reality. (Premise)

  4. Each thing which exists in reality is greater than any thing which
    exists only in the understanding. (Premise)

  5. If a person can conceive of something, and that thing entails
    something else, then the person can also conceive of that other thing.
    (Premise)

  6. If a person can conceive that a specified object has a given property,
    then that person can conceive that something or other has that
    property. (Premise)

  7. Hence the being than which no greater can be conceived exists in
    reality. (From (1)-(6), by a complex series of steps here
    omitted.)

See Barnes 1972.

  1. There is a thing x, and a magnitude m, such that
    x exists in the understanding, m is the magnitude of
    x, and it it not possible that there is a thing y
    and a magnitude n such that n is the magnitude of
    y and n>m. (Premise)

  2. For any thing x and magnitude m, if x
    exists in the understanding, m is the magnitude of
    x, and it is not possible that there is a thing y
    and magnitude n such that n is the magnitude of
    y and n>m, then it is possible that
    x exists in reality. (Premise)

  3. For any thing x and magnitude m, if m is
    the magnitude of x, and it it not possible that there is a
    thing y and a magnitude n such that n is
    the magnitude of y and n>m, and
    x does not exist in reality, then it is not possible that if
    x exists in reality then there is a magnitude n such
    that n is greater than m and n is the
    magnitude of x. (Premise)

  4. (Hence) There is a thing x and a magnitude m such
    that x exist in the understanding, and x exists in
    reality, and m is the magnitude of x, and it it not
    possible that there is a thing y and a magnitude n
    such that n is the magnitude of y and
    n>m. (From 1, 2, 3)

See Adams 1971.

  1. For any understandable being x, there is a world w
    such that x exists in w. (Premise)

  2. For any understandable being x, and for any worlds w
    and v, if x exists in w, but x
    does not exist in v, then the greatness of x in
    w exceeds the greatness of x in v.
    (Premise)

  3. There is an understandable being x such that for no world
    w and being y does the greatness of y in
    w exceed the greatness of x in the actual world.
    (Premise)

  4. (Hence) There is a being x existing in the actual world such
    that for no world w and being y does the greatness
    of y in w exceed the greatness of x in the
    actual world. (From (1)-(3).)

See Lewis 1970.

Lewis also suggests an alternative to (3) which yields a valid
argument:

(3′) There is an understandable being x such that for
no worlds v and w and being y does the
greatness of y in w exceed the greatness of x in
v.

and two alternatives to (3)—not presented here—which yield
invalid arguments. (Of course, these further two alternatives are
crucial to Lewis’ overall analysis of the passage: essentially,
Lewis suggests that Anselm equivocates between an invalid argument
with plausible premises and a valid argument with question-begging
premises. In this respect, Lewis’ analysis is quite different
from the other analyses currently under discussion.)

  1. There is (in the understanding) something than which there is no
    greater. (Premise)

  2. (Hence) There is (in the understanding) a unique thing than which
    there is no greater. (From (1), assuming that the
    “greater-than” relation is connected.)

  3. (Hence) There is (in the understanding) something which is the thing
    than which there is no greater. (From (2), by a theorem about
    descriptions.)

  4. (Hence) There is (in the understanding) nothing which is greater than
    the thing than which there is no greater. (From (3), by another
    theorem about descriptions.)

  5. If that thing than which there is no greater does not exist (in
    reality), then there is (in the understanding) something which is
    greater than that thing than which there is no greater.
    (Premise)

  6. (Hence) That thing than which there is no greater exists (in reality).
    (From (4) and (5).)

  7. (Hence) God exists. (From (6).)

See Oppenheimer and Zalta 1991.

Oppenheimer and Zalta 2011 provides a “simplified” version
of this argument, in which the number of controversial assumptions is
reduced. Since they also provide a clear reason for thinking that this
new version of the argument is not persuasive, it won’t be considered
further here.

Considered as interpretations of the argument presented in the
Proslogion, these formulations are subject to various kinds
of criticisms.

First, the modal interpretations of Lewis 1970 and Adams 1971
don’t square very well with the rest of the Proslogion:
the claim that “being than which no greater can be
conceived” should be read as “being than which no greater
is possible” would have us render the claim of Proslogion
15 to be that God is a being greater than any which is possible.
And that is surely a bad result.

Second, the Meinongian interpretations of Barnes 1972, Adams
1971 and Oppenheimer and Zalta 1991 produce arguments which, given the
principles involved, could easily be much simplified, and which are
obviously vulnerable to Gaunilo-type objections.

Consider, for example, the case of Oppenheimer and Zalta. They have
Anselm committed to the claim that if anyone can understand the phrase
“that than which F”, then there is something in
the understanding such that F (see their footnote 25); and
they also have him committed to the claim that if there is something
which is the F-thing, then it—i.e., the
F-thing—has the property F (see page 7).
Plainly though, if Anselm is really committed to these principles,
then he could hardly fail to be committed to the more general
principles: (1) if anyone can understand the phrase “an
F”, then there is at least one F-thing in the
understanding; and (2) if there are some things which are the
F-things, then they—i.e., the
F-things—must have the property F. (It would
surely be absurd to claim that Anselm is only committed to the less
general principles: what could possibly have justified the
restrictions to the special cases?)

But, then, mark the consequences. We all understand the expression
“an existent perfect being”. So, by the first claim, there
is at least one existent perfect being in the understanding. And, by
the second claim, any existent perfect being is existent. So, from
these two claims combined, there is—in reality—at least
one existent perfect being.

This argument gives Anselm everything that he wants, and very much
more briefly. (The Proslogion goes on and on, trying to
establish the properties of that than which no greater can be
conceived. How much easier if we can just explicitly build all of the
properties which want to “derive” into the initial
description.) So, if Anselm really were committed to the principles
which Oppenheimer and Zalta appear to attribute to him, it is hard to
understand why he didn’t give the simpler argument. And, of
course, it is also hard to understand why he didn’t take
Gaunilo’s criticism. After all, when it is set out in this way,
it is obvious that the argument proves far too much.

Third, some of the arguments have Anselm committed to claims
about greatness which do not seem to correspond with what he actually
says. The natural reading of the text is that, if two beings are
identical save that one exists only in the understanding and the other
exists in reality as well, then the latter is greater than the former.
But Barnes 1971, for example, has Anselm committed to the much
stronger claim that any existing thing is greater than every
non-existent thing.

Given these kinds of considerations, it is natural to wonder whether
there are better interpretations of Proslogion II
according to which the argument in question turns out NOT to
be logically valid. Here is a modest attempt to provide such an
analysis:

We start with the claim that the Fool understands the expression
“being than which no greater can be conceived”, i.e., even
the Fool can entertain the idea or possess the concept of a being than
which no greater can be conceived. Now, entertaining this idea or
possessing this concept requires the entertainer or possessor to
recognise certain relationships which hold between given properties
and the idea or concept in question. For example, given that you
possess the concept of, or entertain the idea of, a smallest really
existent Martian, it follows that you must recognise some kind of
connection between the properties of being a Martian, really existing,
and being smaller than other really existing Martians, and the concept
or idea in question.

Following Anselm, we might say that, since you understand the
expression “smallest really existent Martian”, there is,
in your understanding, at least one smallest really existent Martian.
(Or, apparently following Descartes, one might say that real existence
is “part of”—or “contained in”—the
idea of a smallest really existent Martian.) However, in saying this,
it must be understood that we are not actually predicating properties
of anything: we aren’t supposing that there is something which
possesses the properties of being a Martian, really existing, and
being no larger than any other Martian. (After all, we can safely
suppose, we don’t think that any Martians really exist.) In
other words, we must be able to have the concept of, or entertain the
idea of, a smallest really existing Martian without believing that
there really are any smallest Martians. Indeed, more strongly, we must
be able to entertain the concept of a smallest really existent
Martian—and to recognise that the property of “really
existing” is part of this concept—while nonetheless
maintaining that there are no smallest existent Martians.

It will be useful to introduce vocabulary to mark the point which is
being made here. We could, for instance, distinguish between the
properties which are encoded in an idea or concept, and the
properties which are attributed in positive atomic beliefs
which have that idea or concept as an ingredient. The idea
“really existent Santa Claus” encodes the property of real
existence; but it is perfectly possible to entertain this idea without
attributing real existence to Santa Claus, i.e., without believing
that Santa Claus really exists.

We can then apply this distinction to Anselm’s argument. On the
one hand, the idea “being than which no greater can be
conceived” encodes the property of real existence—this is
what the reductio argument establishes (if it establishes
anything at all). On the other hand, it is perfectly possible to
entertain the idea of a being than which no greater can be
conceived—and to recognise that this idea encodes the property
of real existence—without attributing real existence to a being
than which no greater can be conceived, i.e., without believing that a
being than which no greater can be conceived really exists.

Of course, the argument which Anselm actually presents pays no
attention to this distinction between encoding and
attributing—i.e., between entertaining an idea and holding a
belief—and nor does it pay attention to various other niceties.
We begin from the point that the Fool entertains the idea of that than
which no greater can be conceived (because the Fool understands the
words “that than which no greater can be conceived”). From
this, we move quickly to the claim that even the Fool is
“convinced”—i.e., believes—that that than
which no greater can be conceived possesses the property of existing
in the understanding. And then the reductio argument is
produced to establish that that than which no greater can be conceived
cannot exist only in the understanding but must also possess the
property of existing in reality as well (and all mention of the Fool,
and what it is that the Fool believes, disappears).

As it stands, this is deeply problematic. How are we supposed to
regiment the references to the Fool in the argument? Is the
reductio argument supposed to tell us something about what
even the Fool believes, or ought to believe? Are the earlier
references to the Fool supposed to be inessential and eliminable? How
are we so much as to understand the claim that even the Fool believes
that that than which no greater can be conceived exists in the
understanding? And how do we get from the Fool’s
understanding the words “that than which no greater can
be conceived” to his believing that that than which no
greater can be conceived possesses the property of existing in the
understanding?

Following the earlier line of thought, it seems that the
argument might go something like this:

  1. (Even) the Fool has the concept of that than which no greater can be
    conceived.

  2. (Hence) (Even) the Fool believes that that than which no greater can
    be conceived exists in the understanding.

  3. No one who believes that that than which no greater can be conceived
    exists in the understanding can reasonably believe that that than
    which no greater can be conceived exists only in the
    understanding.

  4. (Hence) (Even) the Fool cannot reasonably deny that that than which no
    greater can be conceived exists in reality

  5. (Hence) That than which no greater can be conceived exists in
    reality.

While this is not a good argument, it could appear compelling to one
who failed to attend to the distinction between entertaining ideas and
holding beliefs and who was a bit hazy on the distinction between the
vehicles of belief and their contents. When the Fool entertains the
concept of that than which no greater can be conceived he recognises
that he is entertaining this concept (i.e., he believes that he is
entertaining the concept of that than which no greater can be
conceived—or, as we might say, that the concept is in his
understanding). Conflating the concept with its object, this gives us
the belief that than which no greater can be conceived possesses the
property of existing in the understanding. Now, suppose as hypothesis
for reductio, that we can reasonably believe that that than
which no greater can be conceived possesses the property of existing
only in the understanding. Ignoring the distinction between
entertaining ideas and holding beliefs, this means that we when we
entertain the idea of that than which no greater can be conceived, we
entertain the idea of a being which exists only in the understanding.
But that is absurd: when we entertain the idea of that than which no
greater can be conceived, our idea encodes the property of existing in
reality. So there is a contradiction, and we can conclude that, in
order to be reasonable, we must believe that that than which no
greater can be conceived exists in reality. But if any reasonable
person must believe that that than which no greater can be conceived
exists in reality, then surely it is the case that that than which no
greater can be conceived exists in reality. And so we are done.

No doubt this suggestion about the interpretation of Anselm’s
argument is deficient in various ways. However, the point of including
it is illustrative rather than dogmatic. In the literature, there has
been great resistance to the idea that the argument which Anselm gives
is one which modern logicians would not hesitate to pronounce invalid.
But it is very hard to see why there should be this resistance.
(Certainly, it is not something for which there is much argument in
the literature.) The text of the Proslogion is so rough, and
so much in need of polishing, that we should not be too quick to
dismiss the suggestion that Anselm’s argument is rather more
like the argument most recently sketched than it is like the logically
valid demonstrations provided by commentators such as Barnes, Adams,
and Oppenheimer and Zalta. (For a more complex analysis of
Proslogion II that has it yielding a valid argument, see
Hinst 2014.)

Many recent discussions of ontological arguments are in compendiums,
companions, encyclopedias, and the like. So, for example, there are
review discussions of ontological arguments in: Leftow 2005, Matthews
2005, Lowe 2007, Oppy 2007, and Maydole 2009. While the ambitions of
these review discussions vary, many of them are designed to introduce
neophytes to the arguments and their history. Given the current
explosion of enthusiasm for compendiums, companions, encyclopedias, and
the like, in philosophy of religion, it is likely that many more such
discussions will appear in the immediate future.

Some recent discussions of ontological arguments have been placed in
more synoptic treatments of arguments about the existence of God. So,
for example, there are extended discussions of ontological arguments
in Everitt 2004, Sobel 2004, and Oppy 2006. Sobel’s examination
of ontological arguments is exemplary. He provides one chapter on
‘classical ontological arguments’: Anselm, Descartes,
Spinoza, and Kant’s critique of ontological arguments; one
chapter on ‘modern modal ontological arguments’:
Hartshorne, Malcolm and Plantinga; and one chapter on
Gödel’s ontological argument. His analyses are very
careful, and make heavy use of the tools of modern philosophical
logic.

There has been one recent monograph devoted exclusively to the
analysis of ontological arguments: Dombrowski 2006. Dombrowski is a
fan of Hartshorne: the aim of his book is to defend the claim that
Hartshorne’s ontological argument is a success. While
Dombrowski’s book is a useful addition to the literature because
of the scope of its discussion of ontological arguments—for
example, it contains a chapter on Rorty on ontological arguments, and
another chapter on John Taylor on ontological arguments—even
reviewers sympathetic to process theism have not been persuaded that
it makes a strong case for its central thesis.

Szatkowski (2012) is a recent collection of papers on ontological
arguments. A significant proportion of papers in this collection take
up technical questions about logics that support ontological
derivations. (Those interested in technical questions may also be
interested in the topic taken up in Oppenheimer and Zalta (2011) and
Gorbacz (2012).) The most recent collection is Oppy (2018).

Finally, there has been some activity in journals. The most
significant of these pieces is Millican 2004, the first article on
ontological arguments in recent memory to appear in Mind.
Millican argues for a novel interpretation of Anselm’s argument,
and for a new critique of ontological arguments deriving from this
interpretation. Needless to say, both the interpretation and the
critique are controversial, but they are also worthy of attention.
Among other journal articles, perhaps the most interesting is Pruss
2010, which provides a novel defence of the key possibility premise in
modal ontological arguments. There is also a chain of papers in
Analysis initiated by Matthews and Baker (2010)

Relatively recent work on ontological arguments by women includes:
Anscombe (1993), Antognazza (2018), Crocker (1972), Diamond (1977),
Ferreira (1983), Garcia (2008), [Haight and] Haight (1970), [Matthews
and] Baker (2011), Wilson (1978) and Zagzebski (1984).


Gambit Dosia X God: Do random people know who he is? (EN subs)


Given how popular Dosia X God is in CS:GO community, we decided to find out whether he is well known among random people on the street as well. If you know who Gambit Dosia aka X God is, you should support him at MLG Columbus Major Championship by purchasing his stickers!
English subtitles are available!
Учитывая популярность Dosia X God в CS:GO сообществе, мы решили проверить, знают ли случайные прохожие, кто такой X God.
Если Вы знаете, кто такой Gambit Dosia, он же X God, то поддержите его на MLG Columbus Major Championship, приобретя его стикеры!
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Gambit Dosia X God: Do random people know who he is? (EN subs)

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Stray Kids(스트레이 키즈) \

Light laugh x Feel like god remix


I got bored and made this yea☺️
Light
Death note
Kira
Feel like god
Mashup
Death note Light

Light laugh x Feel like god remix

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆWiki

ขอบคุณที่รับชมกระทู้ครับ x god

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