[NEW] Guide to the Best Knife Steel | steel csgo – Vietnamnhanvan

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banner-Essential-Guide-to-Knife-Steel-v2In choosing the best pocket knife you should pay particular attention to the type of steel used in the blade.  Alongside edge geometry and design, blade steel is a critical element that determines how a knife performs.  Steel is essentially an alloy (i.e. a mix) of carbon and iron that is often enriched with other elements to improve certain characteristics depending on the desired application.

In the knife industry different types of steel are created by varying the types of additive elements as well as how the blade is rolled and heated (i.e. the finishing process).  Refer to our Knife Steel Composition Chart for more details on these elements.

Ultimately, the different types of steel used in knife blades each exhibit varying degrees of these five key properties:

Hardness

logocircle-smallHardness is the ability to resist deforming when subject to stress and applied forces.   Hardness in knife steels is directly correlated to strength and is generally measured using the Rockwell C scale (aka “HRC”).

Toughness

logocircle-smallToughness is the ability to resist damage like cracks or chips when subject to impact or “sudden loads”.  Chipping is a knife’s worst enemy and never easy to fix.   There are a number of different ways to measure toughness (i.e. Charpy, Izod) thus it’s less standardized than hardness when it comes to knives. In general, the harder the steel the less tough it’s likely to be.

Wear Resistance

logocircle-smallWear resistance is the steel’s ability to withstand damage from both abrasive and adhesive wear.  Abrasive wear occurs when harder particles pass over a softer surface.  Adhesive wear occurs when debris is dislodged from one surface and attaches to the other.  Wear resistance generally correlates with the steel’s hardness but is also heavily influenced by the specific chemistry of the steel.  In steels of equal hardness, the steel with larger carbides (think microscopic, hard, wear resistant particles) will typically resist wear better.  However, carbides can become brittle and crack, thus decreasing toughness.

Corrosion Resistance

logocircle-smallCorrosion resistance is the ability to resist corrosion such as rust caused by external elements like humidity, moisture and salt.  Note that a high resistance to corrosion does involve a sacrifice in the overall edge performance.

Edge Retention

logocircle-smallEdge Retention represents how long the blade will retain its sharpness when subject to periods of use.  It’s what everyone talks about these days but unfortunately the measurement of edge retention lacks any defined set of standards and so much of the data is subjective.  For me, edge retention is a combination of wear resistance and an edge that resists deformation.

>Here’s a knife with the best performing steel for edge retention<

Unfortunately the “best knife steel” is not simply a case of maximizing each of the properties above….it’s a trade off.  The biggest trade off is balancing strength or hardness with toughness.  Some blades can be made to be exceptionally hard but will chip or crack if you drop them onto a hard surface.  Conversely a blade can be extremely tough and able to bend but will struggle to hold it’s edge.  Basically, the stuff that makes steel strong (high amount carbon/carbides) generally lowers the toughness. Also note that the term ‘stainless steel‘ is generally misleading as most all types of steel will show some kind of discoloration if left exposed to the elements for long enough.   By knowing you plan to use the knife you will generally be able to determine the best steel for your situation.

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Common Knife Steel Types

The most common blade steel types generally fall into the following categories:

  • Carbon Steel – generally made for rough use where toughness and durability is important. Common in survival knives and machetes.  They take a sharp edge and are relatively easy to re-sharpen.  The trade-off is being more prone to corrosion given the low chromium content. The most popular carbon knife steel is 1095.
  • Tool Steel – primarily hard steel alloys used in cutting tools.  Some popular tool steels in this group include D2, O1 and Crucible’s CPM series (i.e. CPM 3V) plus more advanced high speed steels like M4.
  • Stainless Steel – basically carbon steel with added chromium to resist corrosion and other elements which increase performance levels but usually at the expense of inferior toughness.  Easily the most popular category today for EDC knives and includes the 400, 154CM, AUS, VG, CTS, MoV, Sandvik and Crucible SxxV series of steels.  Note that to qualify as a true stainless steel there must be at least 13% chromium.

Today’s popular knife steels

Below are the most common steels found in knife blades today.  Yes, technically there are “better” steels out there (CPM-125V, CPM-10V, K294 to name a few) but these are extremely rare in the marketplace.  Don’t get too carried away with the perceived rankings, it’s not an exact science and this is simply my way of bucketing the steels into general performance categories based on a variety of factors.

KnifeSteel-UltraPremium

Steel-CrucibleCPM S110V

CPM S110V

EDGE RETENTION:

10

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

1

MARKET POPULARITY:

1

Quite simply the ultimate in wear resistance and edge retention in ‘mainstream’ knife production.  Still relatively rare in the marketplace and arguably indistinguishable from CPM-S90V outside of the laboratory, but the fact remains that nothing holds an edge like Crucible’s CPM-S110V. It’s costly, a bitch for knifemakers to work with and sharpening can drive you nuts but a CPM-S110V blade will hold up for a ridiculous amount of time (our review of the Spyderco Military demonstrates perfectly). >> See knives with CPM-110V steel.

Steel-CrucibleCPM S90V

CPM S90V

EDGE RETENTION:

9

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

5

EASE OF SHARPENING:

1

MARKET POPULARITY:

3

Crucible’s CPM S90V steel approaches the very pinnacle of wear resistance and edge retention.   As you’d expect the carbon content is very high but the secret here is the extreme quantities of vanadium, almost three times that found in Elmax or S30V.  Yes it’s ridiculously expensive, and yes it requires the patience of a saint to sharpen but outside its less common cousin CPM-S110V (see above) nothing holds an edge or withstands abrasion quite like CPM S90V.  One of the hottest CPM S90V blade’s right now is the Benchmade 940-1 with exceptional performance. >> See knives with CPM-90V steel.

Steel-BohlerM390

M390

EDGE RETENTION:

9

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

7

EASE OF SHARPENING:

2

MARKET POPULARITY:

6

M390 is one of the new super steels on the block, manufactured by Bohler-Uddeholm (result of merger of Austrian Bohler and Swedish Uddeholm).  It uses third generation powder metal technology and developed for knife blades requiring excellent corrosion resistance and very high hardness for excellent wear resistance.  Chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, and tungsten are added to promote sharpness and outstanding edge retention.  Unlike ZDP-189 most carbides are formed by vanadium and molybdenum, leaving more ‘free chromium’ to fight corrosion. M390 hardens to 60-62 HRC.  Bohler calls this steel “Microclean” and it can be polished to achieve a true mirror.  Moderately difficult to sharpen, but won’t take you as long as with S90V.   Benchmade’s 581 Barrage is an affordable example of M390 performing at its best. >> See knives with M390 steel.

steel-hitachiZDP-189

ZDP-189

EDGE RETENTION:

8

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

4

EASE OF SHARPENING:

1

MARKET POPULARITY:

2

ZDP-189 by Hitachi is another of the newer super steels containing huge quantities of carbon and chromium that result in ridiculous levels of hardness.  ZDP-189 averages around 64 HRC but some knifemakers are able to achieve upwards of 66 HRC.  Of course with those levels of hardness you can expect superb edge retention but at the cost of extreme difficulty in sharpening.   With a chromium content of around 20% you’d expect it to be immune to corrosion right?  Wrong.  The massive amount of carbon in ZDP-189 effectively ‘pairs up’ with the chromium to form carbides which leaves less ‘free chromium’ to battle corrosion.  So, while it’s both harder and more wear resistant than S30V it’s more prone to corrosion.  Spyderco’s Dragonfly 2 is a good example. >> See knives with ZDP-189 steel.

steel-uddeholmElmax

Elmax

EDGE RETENTION:

8

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

5

EASE OF SHARPENING:

3

MARKET POPULARITY:

6

European Uddeholm (now Bohler-Uddeholm) introduced Elmax which is a high chromium-vanadium-molybdenum alloyed powdered steel with extremely high wear and corrosion resistance.  Elmax is stainless but acts in many ways like a carbon steel.  You get superb edge holding and the easiest of the super-steels to sharpen while maintaining a healthy resistance to rust.  The ‘best all round’ knife steel?  Perhaps.  What’s great to see is that Bohler-Uddeholm sure is giving Crucible a run for their money these days.  The ZT 0620 is a great example of a superb Elmax blade. >> See knives with Elmax steel.

Steel-CrucibleCPM-20CV

CPM-20CV

EDGE RETENTION:

9

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

7

EASE OF SHARPENING:

2

MARKET POPULARITY:

4

CPM-20CV is Crucible’s version of Bohler’s popular M390 steel which also influenced Carpenter to copycat with CTS-204P.  As a Powder Metallurgy (PM) tool steel, you get a combination of impressive wear resistance and edge retention plus the added benefit of being highly corrosion resistant due to high levels of chromium. It’s still fairly new in the market but makers like Benchmade are already using CPM-20CV in newer models like their 556-1 Griptilian.  In fact, Benchmade claim their M390 is marginally tougher but 20CV has better edge retention. >> See knives with CPM-20CV steel.

KnifeSteel-Premium

steel-carpenterCTS-XHP

CTS-XHP

EDGE RETENTION:

8

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

5

MARKET POPULARITY:

4

CTS-XHP from US based Carpenter is another relatively new knife steel that has very good edge retention and hardens to about 61 HRC.  This is yet another powder metallurgy creation where Carpenter’s technicians have developed an extremely fine powder grain that results in excellent performance.  Slightly better edge retention than S30V and but a little more work required in the sharpening process.  Think of CTS-XHP as a more corrosion resistant form of D2 steel with marginally superior edge retention.  Like D2, however, it’s not easy to sharpen and can be brittle (prone to chipping). >> See knives with CTS-XHP steel.

Steel-CrucibleCPM M4

CPM M4

EDGE RETENTION:

9

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

2

EASE OF SHARPENING:

2

MARKET POPULARITY:

2

A high performance tool steel which excels at toughness and arguably holds and edge better than any other carbon steel.  Like all CPM steels, CPM M4 is created using Crucible’s patented Crucible Particle Metallurgy process, which provides an extremely homogeneous, stable and grindable product compared to the traditional processes.  CPM M4 provides superbly balances levels of abrasion resistance and toughness through high doses of molybdenum (hence the “M”), vanadium and tungsten together with reasonably high levels of carbon.  It can be hardened to around 62-64 HRC but note M4 is a carbon steel is not considered stainless with relatively low levels of chromium.  So, while this is one of the best steels around for cutting, it has to be properly cared for and may develop a patina over time.  Some manufacturers have resorted to coatings which do help but note they won’t last forever.  Easy to sharpen?…erm, no. >> See knives with M4 steel.

Steel-CrucibleCPM S35VN

CPM S35VN

EDGE RETENTION:

7

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

7

EASE OF SHARPENING:

5

MARKET POPULARITY:

8

In 2009, Crucible and Chris Reeve introduced an ever so slightly superior version of their excellent S30V steel and named it S35VN.  By using a much finer grain structure and adding small quantities of niobium (hence the “N”) they were able to make the outstanding S30V easier to machine while improving toughness and ability to sharpen.  In the real world, however you will find the two near-indistinguishable.  Many would argue this is the ultimate in ‘mainstream’ knife steels and you would struggle to find any steel with better edge retention, toughness and stain resistance for the money.  In 2019, a decade later, Crucible introduced CPM-S45VN which essentially incorporates an extra dollop of chromium for a modest improvement in corrosion resistance.  >> See knives with CPM-S35VN steel.

Steel-CrucibleCPM S30V

CPM S30V

EDGE RETENTION:

7

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

7

EASE OF SHARPENING:

5

MARKET POPULARITY:

7

Made by US based Crucible, CPM S30V (often simply referred to as S30V) steel has excellent edge retention and resists rust effortlessly.  It was designed in the US and is typically used for the high-end premium pocket knives and expensive kitchen cutlery.  The introduction of vanadium carbides brings extreme hardness into the steel alloy matrix.  Dollar for dollar, this is generally regarded as one of the finest knife blade steels with the optimal balance of edge retention, hardness and toughness.  Note S30V now has a slightly better looking brother in S35VN which is distinctly similar but easier for manufacturers to work with thanks to niobium.  Still, S30V is pretty common these days and one of our favorites. >> See knives with CPM-S30V steel.

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KnifeSteel-HighEnd

Steel-Crucible154CM

154CM

EDGE RETENTION:

6

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

5

A relatively hard steel which is considered an upgraded version of 440C through the addition of Molybdenum. This achieves superior edge holding compared to 440C while retaining similar excellent levels of corrosion resistance despite having less Chromium.  It has decent toughness good enough for most uses and holds an edge well.  Not too difficult to sharpen with the right equipment.  You’ll find a lot of quality pocket knives from top manufacturers like Benchmade using 154CM steel.  You may also see CPM 154 which is a powder version of the same alloy produced much differently using Crucible Particle Metallurgy (Sweden’s Damasteel also produces a similar grade in RWL-34).  The Particle Metallurgy process makes finer carbide particles resulting in a slightly superior steel that’s tougher and with better edge retention … but whether the average user can tell the difference is arguable.

steel-hitachiATS-34

ATS-34

EDGE RETENTION:

6

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

5

This steel can be thought of as the Japanese equivalent to the US made 154CM.  Accordingly, it has very similar properties and characteristics to the 154CM and in general represents a high quality steel which has become very popular with knife makers.  ATS-34 has great edge retention but is actually a little less rust resistant than the lower-range 440C steel.

steel-genericD2

D2

EDGE RETENTION:

8

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

2

EASE OF SHARPENING:

3

D2 steel is a tool steel often referred to as “semi-stainless” as it falls just short of the required amount of chromium (13%) to qualify as full stainless yet it still provides a good amount of resistance to corrosion.  On the flip side D2 steel is much harder than other steels in this category such as 154CM or ATS-34 and as a result holds its edge a little better.  That said, it’s not as tough as many other steels and exponentially tougher to sharpen.  In fact, you really need to be a master-sharpener to get a fine edge on D2.

steel-takefuVG-10

VG-10

EDGE RETENTION:

6

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

7

EASE OF SHARPENING:

6

The VG-10 steel is very similar to 154CM and ATS-34 with slightly more chromium for enhanced corrosion resistance but also contains vanadium which makes it marginally tougher than these two.  It originated not too long ago from Japan and has been slowly introduced into the American market by respect knife makers like Spyderco.  It’s relatively hard and can get extremely sharp while also demonstrating reasonable toughness.

steel-myodoH1

H1

EDGE RETENTION:

2

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

9

EASE OF SHARPENING:

8

H1 steel from Japan’s Myodo Metals is basically the ultimate in corrosion resistance and essentially does not rust.  The epitome of true stainless steel.  Naturally, this comes at a price and that price is edge retention which is relatively poor.  So, while excellent for diving it’s a non-starter for most EDC use.   Very expensive stuff.

Steel-BohlerN680

N680

EDGE RETENTION:

5

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

8

EASE OF SHARPENING:

6

N680 steel contains about 0.20% nitrogen and over 17% chromium making it extremely corrosion resistant.  If your blade will be in frequent contact with salt water for example then this is the steel for you.  It’s also a fine grained steel that can take a very fine edge. Consider it a cheaper alternative to H1 steel with decent edge retention but it won’t hold an edge as long as say, 154CM.

KnifeSteel-UpperMidRange

steel-generic440C

440C

EDGE RETENTION:

4

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

4

EASE OF SHARPENING:

6

Once considered the high-end in US knife steels, 440C is a good all-round steel that has now been overshadowed by many of the newer super-steels on the block.  This is a stainless steel commonly used on many mass-manufactured pocket knives and represents a solid affordable all-round choice.  It’s reasonably tough and wear resistant but it really excels at stain resistance.  Holds an edge better than it’s 400-series counterpart 420HC but at the expense of some corrosion resistance.  The 440C blades can be sharpened relatively easily.  It has the highest levels of carbon and chromium in this group.

steel-aichiAUS-8

AUS-8

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

4

EASE OF SHARPENING:

8

AUS-8 steel is Japanese made and extremely similar to 440B steel which is slightly more resistant to rust and corrosion than 440C but less hard.  It’s also similarly tough but may not hold its edge as well as some of the more premium steels which carry a greater degree of carbon.  Remember, more carbon means more hardness and edge holding.  Real easy to sharpen and takes a razor edge.

steel-carpenterCTS-BD1

CTS-BD1

EDGE RETENTION:

4

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

6

Created at Spyderco’s request, CTS-BD1 is a vacuum-melted stainless steel from US based Carpenter that is often likened to AUS-8 and 8Cr13MoV with many putting it slightly ahead of those two based on superior edge holding.  With slightly more chromium it also achieves better corrosion resistance.  CTS-BD1 has mid-sized chromium carbides (hard, wear resisting particles) it takes an edge relatively easily but not on par with the wear resistance of high carbide steels like 154CM.

steel-ahonest8Cr13MoV

8Cr13MoV

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

5

EASE OF SHARPENING:

8

The MoV (or Cr) series of steels originate from China and comparable to AUS-8 but containing slightly higher carbon content.  You typically get great value for money with this steel and good manufacturers like Spyderco have mastered the heat treatment process to bring out its best.

steel-sandvik14C28N

14C28N

EDGE RETENTION:

4

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

6

EASE OF SHARPENING:

6

The 14C28N stainless steel from Swedish manufacturer Sandvik is considered an upgrade to their 13C26 described below.  In fact, Kershaw asked Sandvik to make their 13C26 steel more resistant to corrosion and the result was 14C28N.  In the lab you’ll find slightly more chromium and less carbon in the 14C28N but the real secret is the addition of Nitrogen which promotes corrosion resistance.  Overall a very impressive mid-range steel that can be made extremely sharp.  Arguably the best budget knife steel and quite possibly the best steel you’ll find on a sub-$30 production knife.

KnifeSteel-LowerMidRange

steel-generic440A

440A

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

5

EASE OF SHARPENING:

9

Very much like 420HC but with slightly more carbon which results in enhanced levels of wear resistance and edge retention but suffers from weaker anti-corrosion properties.

steel-latrobe420HC

420HC

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

8

EASE OF SHARPENING:

9

Generally considered the king of the 420 steels, 420HC is similar to 420 steel but with increased levels of carbon (HC stands for High Carbon) which makes the steel harder.  Still considered a lower-mid range steel but the more competent manufacturers (e.g. Buck) can really bring out the best in this affordable steel using quality heat treatments.  That results in better edge retention and resistance to corrosion.  In fact, this is one of the most corrosion resistant steels out there, despite it’s low cost.  You’ll find it mostly on budget blades (< $50) and multi-tools.

steel-sandvik13C26

13C26

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

4

EASE OF SHARPENING:

7

This is Sandvik’s version of the AEB-L steel, originally developed for razor blades.  Close comparison to 440A steel with a higher carbon to chromium ratio making it generally a little harder and wearable at the expense of corrosion resistance.   Still, in real world applications it’s difficult to tell them apart and they tend to perform very similarly.  Sandvik later came out with 14C28N which is a slightly improved version of 13C26.

steel-generic1095

1095

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

2

EASE OF SHARPENING:

8

This is the most popular 10-series standard carbon steel (about 1% carbon) with low corrosion resistance and average edge retention properties. Why would you want 1095 steel?  The appeal here is 1095 is a tough steel that’s resistant to chipping, it’s easy to sharpen, takes a crazy sharp edge and is inexpensive to produce.  This makes it desirable for larger heavy duty fixed blades and survival knives which are going to be subject to more abuse than your typical EDC.  Many manufacturers will coat their 1095 knives to delay the onset of any corrosion but a simple oil treatment will do the trick.

KnifeSteel-LowEnd

steel-generic420J

420J

EDGE RETENTION:

2

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

8

EASE OF SHARPENING:

9

The 420 steel is on the lower end of the quality spectrum but still perfectly fine for general use applications.  It has a relatively low carbon content (usually less than 0.5%) which makes for a softer blade and as a result will tend to lose it’s edge quicker than higher end steels.   Blades made from 420 steel will rapidly lose their sharp edge over a relatively short time period.  That said, it’s typically tough with high flexibility and extremely stain resistant  but it is not particularly resistant to wear and tear. As you would expect, knives made from this type of steel are generally low priced, mass produced items.

steel-aichiAUS-6

AUS-6

EDGE RETENTION:

3

CORROSION RESISTANCE:

5

EASE OF SHARPENING:

9

Japanese made equivalent to the 420 series steel.  A soft steel that’s generally low quality with relatively little carbon content but it resists corrosion reasonably well.

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Other popular steels

In today’s fiercely competitive market the ultimate steels rarely retain their crown for long.  Manufacturers consistently push the boundaries of science and technology to introduce superior alloys to the marketplace and boost profits.  I remember the days when 440C was king, an impressive steel now relegated to the budget category.  Sure, marketing plays a huge role today with companies using slick tactics to convince consumers that their latest steel is even better than the last.  Truth is, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to evaluate these steels objectively as the incremental performance gains become indistinguishable and almost impossible to quantify outside of the laboratory.  Still, here’s my take on some other steels which are popular among knife enthusiasts but still relatively rare in the marketplace.

Maxamet

Maxamet is the latest high speed powder steel from Carpenter (aka CarTech).  Its an extreme alloy with insane hardness and tremendous edge retention while still retaining a reasonable amount of toughness but at the expense of corrosion resistance (it’s not stainless).  While it wasn’t designed to compete with Crucible’s chart topping CPM-S110V steel, many knife nerds like the compare the two.  So, how does Maxamet compare against CPM-S110V?  Well, it’s largely still up for debate but from my experience Maxamet matches S110V in edge retention but falls short on corrosion resistance (it’s not stainless).  Both are ridiculously difficult to sharpen.   You’ll find Maxamet on some Spyderco offerings like the Native 5 and Manix 2.

Cru-Wear

Cru-Wear is a Crucible tool steel which can be thought of as a modification of D2 steel by dialing down the carbon and chromium while jacking up the vanadium and tungsten levels.  Vanadium carbides beat out chromium for hardness and and lower carbon levels make for a tougher steel.  So, now it becomes comparable to CPM-3V and M4, with excellent toughness and thus resistance to chipping in knives.  Bottom line is, CruWear is offered as a balance between 3V and M4.  It’s tougher than M4 but won’t hold an edge as long, while being less tough than 3V but holds and edge longer.  Basically a good balance of toughness and wear resistance.  Currently being offered by Bark River Knives, Jake Hoback, Spyderco.

Knife Steel Performance Charts

Here are my rankings for edge retention, corrosion resistance, Rockwell hardness and toughness.

Steel-charts-edge-retention-v3
Steel-charts-corrosion-v3
Steel-charts-hardness-v3
Steel-charts-toughness-v3

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Knife Steel Elements

Alloying elements are an important ingredient vital in getting the best steel for the job.  Here’s a brief description of their impact on the resulting steel’s properties.  For more information see our knife steel composition guide. 

ElementWhat it contributesCarbonelement-cHardness, Edge RetentionChromiumelement-crCorrosion Resistance, HardnessMolybdenum element-moToughnessNickelelement-niToughnessVanadiumelement-vHardenability, Wear ResistanceCobaltelement-coHardnessManganeseelement-mnHardenability, Strength, Wear ResistanceSiliconelement-siHardenability, StrengthNiobium element-nbToughness, Wear Resistance, Corrosion ResistanceTungsten element-wToughness, Wear ResistanceSulfur element-sMachinabilityPhosphorus element-pHardness, Corrosion ResistanceNitrogenelement-nCorrosion ResistanceCopperelement-cuDeoxidationAluminumelement-alDeoxidationBoronelement-bHardenabilityLeadelement-pbMachinabilitySeleniumelement-seMachinabilityTantalumelement-taDuctility, Hardness, Wear ResistanceZirconium element-zrToughness, Ductility

What are CPM steels?

CPM stands for Crucible Particle Metallurgy which is a process for manufacturing high quality tool steels.  American Crucible Industries is the sole producer of CPM steels which are formed by pouring the molten metal through a small nozzle where high pressure gas bursts the liquid stream into a spray of tiny droplets.  These droplets are cooled, solidified into a powder form and then hot isostatically pressed (HIP) where the powder is bonded and compacted.  The trick here is that the HIP process ensures each of the fine particles have a uniform composition without any alloy segregation.  All this results in a steel that has improved toughness, wear resistance and can be ground and heat treated with maximum effect.

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Austenitic vs Martensitic Steel

Austenitic steel contains high amounts of nickel (around 8%) which makes it non-magnetic and relatively soft making it generally undesirable for knife making.  However, the benefits of Austenitic steel are its toughness and superior corrosion resistance from high levels of chromium making it perfect for everyday items like forks, spoons, kitchen sinks, etc.   Martensitic steel contains less chromium while still meeting the criteria for stainless steel but very little nickel thus making the steel magnetic.  What really sets martensitic steels apart is higher levels of carbon which allows for the formation of Martensite, an extremely hard structure making it ideal for knifemaking.  Steel manufacturers can transform austenite into martensite through rapid quenching.

What about Damascus steel?

Damascus steel originates from the middle east from countries like India and Pakistan where it was first used back in good old “BC” times.  It’s instantly recognizable as it bears a swirling pattern caused by the welding of two different steels and so often referred to as “pattern-welded” steel (not to be confused with Wootz steel which is only similar in appearance).  There are many myths about the strength and capabilities of Damascus steel but today it is largely popular because of its aesthetic beauty.  Mostly for collectors only.

Are all blades from the same steel alike?

Absolutely not.  A massive factor in how a blade performs comes from Heat Treating.  In transforming the ‘raw’ steel into the finished blade each manufacturer will heat treat the steel to bring out the best in its inherent characteristics.  Heat treating is complicated and it requires skill to bring out the very best that the steel can offer.  So, a CPM-S30V knife from one manufacturer may perform very differently to that from another.

Other considerations

Remember, blade steel is not everything.  Knife buyers should beware getting caught up in researching the perfect steel type as it is not by itself the only thing that dictates how a knife will perform.  Steel analysis has become somewhat scientific that it’s easy to get caught up in the maze of statistics.   Note – just because a blade is made from the premium or high-end steels listed above does not automatically mean it’s “better” than the lesser steels.  The heat treatment techniques used by the manufacturer as well as the design of the blade itself play a huge role in the ultimate outcome of knife performance!

In reality, all modern steels will perform well enough for most users so consider spending more time on other aspects of the pocket knife such as how the knife handles and other features.

[NEW] Steel material properties | steel csgo – Vietnamnhanvan

The properties of structural steel result from both its chemical composition and its method of manufacture , including processing during fabrication. Product standards define the limits for composition, quality and performance and these limits are used or presumed by structural designers. This article reviews the principal properties that are of interest to the designer and indicates the relevant standards for particular products. Specification of steelwork is covered in a separate article.

               

Schematic stress / strain diagram for steel

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Material properties required for design

The properties that need to be considered by designers when specifying steel construction products are:

For design, the mechanical properties are derived from minimum values specified in the relevant product standard. Weldability is determined by the chemical content of the alloy, which is governed by limits in the product standard. Durability depends on the particular alloy type – ordinary carbon steel, weathering steel or stainless steel .

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Factors that influence mechanical properties

Steel derives its mechanical properties from a combination of chemical composition, heat treatment and manufacturing processes. While the major constituent of steel is iron, the addition of very small quantities of other elements can have a marked effect upon the properties of the steel. The strength of steel can be increased by the addition of alloys such as manganese, niobium and vanadium. However, these alloy additions can also adversely affect other properties, such as ductility, toughness and weldability .

Minimizing the sulphur level can enhance ductility , and toughness can be improved by the addition of nickel. The chemical composition for each steel specification is therefore carefully balanced and tested during its production to ensure that the appropriate properties are achieved.

The alloying elements also produce a different response when the material is subjected to heat treatments involving cooling at a prescribed rate from a particular peak temperature. The manufacturing process may involve combinations of heat treatment and mechanical working that are of critical importance to the performance of the steel.

Mechanical working takes place as the steel is being rolled or formed. The more steel is rolled, the stronger it becomes. This effect is apparent in the material standards, which tend to specify reducing levels of yield strength with increasing material thickness.

The effect of heat treatment is best explained by reference to the various production process routes that can be used in steel manufacturing, the principal ones being:

  • As-rolled steel
  • Normalized steel
  • Normalized-rolled steel
  • Thermomechanically rolled (TMR) steel
  • Quenched and tempered (Q&T) steel.

Steel cools as it is rolled, with a typical rolling finish temperature of around 750°C. Steel that is then allowed to cool naturally is termed ‘as-rolled’ material. Normalizing takes place when as-rolled material is heated back up to approximately 900°C, and held at that temperature for a specific time, before being allowed to cool naturally. This process refines the grain size and improves the mechanical properties, specifically toughness. Normalized-rolled is a process where the temperature is above 900°C after rolling is completed. This has a similar effect on the properties as normalizing, but it eliminates the extra process of reheating the material. Normalized and normalized-rolled steels have an ‘N’ designation.

The use of high tensile steel can reduce the volume of steel needed but the steel needs to be tough at operating temperatures, and it should also exhibit sufficient ductility to withstand any ductile crack propagation. Therefore, higher strength steels require improved toughness and ductility, which can be achieved only with low carbon clean steels and by maximizing grain refinement. The implementation of the thermomechanical rolling process (TMR) is an efficient way to achieve this.

Thermomechanically rolled steel utilises a particular chemistry of the steel to permit a lower rolling finish temperature of around 700°C. Greater force is required to roll the steel at these lower temperatures, and the properties are retained unless reheated above 650°C. Thermomechanically rolled steel has an ‘M’ designation.

The process for Quenched and Tempered steel starts with a normalized material at 900°C. It is rapidly cooled or ‘quenched’ to produce steel with high strength and hardness, but low toughness. The toughness is restored by reheating it to 600°C, maintaining the temperature for a specific time, and then allowing it to cool naturally (Tempering). Quenched and tempered steels have a ‘Q’ designation.

Quenching involves cooling a product rapidly by immersion directly into water or oil. It is frequently used in conjunction with tempering which is a second stage heat treatment to temperatures below the austenitizing range. The effect of tempering is to soften previously hardened structures and make them tougher and more ductile.

               

Schematic temperature / time graph of rolling processes

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Strength

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Yield strength

Yield strength is the most common property that the designer will need as it is the basis used for most of the rules given in design codes . In European Standards for structural carbon steels (including weathering steel ), the primary designation relates to the yield strength, e.g. S355 steel is a structural steel with a specified minimum yield strength of 355 N/mm².

The product standards also specify the permitted range of values for the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The minimum UTS is relevant to some aspects of design.

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Hot rolled steels

For hot rolled carbon steels, the number quoted in the designation is the value of yield strength for material up to 16 mm thick. Designers should note that yield strength reduces with increasing plate or section thickness (thinner material is worked more than thick material and working increases the strength). For the two most common grades of steel used in UK, the specified minimum yield strengths and the minimum tensile strength are shown in table below for steels to BS EN 10025-2[1] .

Minimum yield and tensile strength for common steel grades
Grade
Yield strength (N/mm2) for nominal thickness t (mm)
Tensile strength (N/mm2) for nominal thickness t (mm)
t ≤ 16
16 < t ≤ 40
40 < t ≤ 63
63 < t ≤ 80
3 < t ≤ 100
100 < t ≤ 150

S275
275
265
255
245
410
400

S355
355
345
335
325
470
450

The UK National Annex to BS EN 1993-1-1[2] allows the minimum yield value for the particular thickness to be used as the nominal (characteristic) yield strength fy and the minimum tensile strength fu to be used as the nominal (characteristic) ultimate strength.

Similar values are given for other grades in other parts of BS EN 10025 and for hollow sections to BS EN 10210-1[3] .

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Cold formed steels

There is a wide range of steel grades for strip steels suitable for cold forming. Minimum values of yield strength and tensile strength are specified in the relevant product standard BS EN 10346[4].

BS EN 1993-1-3[5] tabulates values of basic yield strength fyb and ultimate tensile strength fu that are to be used as characteristic values in design.

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Stainless steels

Grades of stainless steel are designated by a numerical ‘steel number’ (such as 1.4401 for a typical austenitic steel) rather than the ‘S’ designation system for carbon steels. The stress-strain relationship does not have the clear distinction of a yield point and stainless steel ‘yield’ strengths for stainless steel are generally quoted in terms of a proof strength defined for a particular offset permanent strain (conventionally the 0.2% strain).

The strengths of commonly used structural stainless steels range from 170 to 450 N/mm². Austenitic steels have a lower yield strength than commonly used carbon steels; duplex steels have a higher yield strength than common carbon steels. For both austenitic and duplex stainless steels, the ratio of ultimate strength to yield strength is greater than for carbon steels.

BS EN 1993-1-4[6] tabulates nominal (characteristic) values of yield strength fy and ultimate minimum tensile strength fu for steels to BS EN 10088-1[7] for use in design.

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Toughness

               

V-notch impact test specimen

It is in the nature of all materials to contain some imperfections. In steel these imperfections take the form of very small cracks. If the steel is insufficiently tough, the ‘crack’ can propagate rapidly, without plastic deformation and result in a ‘brittle fracture’. The risk of brittle fracture increases with thickness, tensile stress, stress raisers and at colder temperatures. The toughness of steel and its ability to resist brittle fracture are dependent on a number of factors that should be considered at the specification stage. A convenient measure of toughness is the Charpy V-notch impact test – see image on the right. This test measures the impact energy required to break a small notched specimen, at a specified temperature, by a single impact blow from a pendulum.

The various product standards specify minimum values of impact energy for different sub-grades of each strength grade. For non-alloy structural steels the main designations of the subgrades are JR, J0, J2 and K2. For fine grain steels and quenched and tempered steels (which are generally tougher, with higher impact energy) different designations are used. A summary of the toughness designations is given in the table below.

Specified minimum impact energy for carbon steel sub-grades
Standard
Subgrade
Impact strength
Test temperature

BS EN 10025-2[1]
BS EN 10210-1[3]
JR
27J
20oC

J0
27J
0oC

J2
27J
-20oC

K2
40J
-20oC

BS EN 10025-3[8]
N
40J
-20oc

NL
27J
-50oc

BS EN 10025-4[9]
M
40J
-20oc

ML
27J
-50oc

BS EN 10025-5[10]
J0
27J
0oC

J2
27J
-20oC

K2
40J
-20oC

J4
27J
-40oC

J5
27J
-50oC

BS EN 10025-6[11]
Q
30J
-20oc

QL
30J
-40oc

QL1
30J
-60oc

For thin gauge steels for cold forming, no impact energy requirements are specified for material less than 6 mm thick.

The selection of an appropriate sub-grade, to provide adequate toughness in design situations is given in BS EN 1993‑1‑10[12] and its associated UK NA[13]. The rules relate the exposure temperature, stress level etc, to a ‘limiting thickness’ for each sub-grade of steel. PD 6695-1-10[14] contains useful look-up tables and guidance on selection of an appropriate sub-grade is given in ED007.

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These design rules were developed for structures subject to fatigue such as bridges and crane supporting structures, and it is acknowledged that their use for buildings where fatigue plays a minor role is extremely safe-sided.

SCI publication P419 presents modified steel thickness limits which may be used in buildings where fatigue is not a design consideration. These new limits have been derived using exactly the same approach behind the Eurocode design rules, but crucially reduce the crack growth due to fatigue. The word “reduce” is used, since to assume no growth at all would be to eliminate the effect of fatigue altogether. Some fatigue (20,000 cycles) is allowed for based on indicative guidance from a DIN Standard.

The term “quasi-static” would cover such structures – in reality that there may be some limited cycling of load, but that would not normally be considered – the design approach is to consider all loads as static. The key to the new approach is the formula to express the crack growth under 20,000 cycles. Experts at the University of Aachen (who were involved with the development of the Eurocode) provided this all-important expression.

Further background is available in a technical article in the September 2017 issue of NSC magazine.

Stainless steels are generally much tougher than carbon steels; minimum values are specified in BS EN 10088-4[15]. BS EN 1993-1-4[6] states that austenitic and duplex steels are adequately tough and not susceptible to brittle fracture for service temperatures down to -40°C.

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Ductility

Ductility is a measure of the degree to which a material can strain or elongate between the onset of yield and eventual fracture under tensile loading as demonstrated in the figure below. The designer relies on ductility for a number of aspects of design, including redistribution of stress at the ultimate limit state, bolt group design, reduced risk of fatigue crack propagation and in the fabrication processes of welding, bending and straightening. The various standards for the grades of steel in the above table insist on a minimum value for ductility so the design assumptions are valid and if these are specified correctly the designer can be assured of their adequate performance.

               

Stress – strain behaviour for steel

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Weldability

               

Welding stiffeners onto a large fabricated beam

All structural steels are essentially weldable. However, welding involves locally melting the steel, which subsequently cools. The cooling can be quite fast because the surrounding material, e.g. the beam, offers a large ‘heat sink’ and the weld (and the heat introduced) is usually relatively small. This can lead to hardening of the ‘heat affected zone’ (HAZ) and to reduced toughness. The greater the thickness of material, the greater the reduction of toughness.

The susceptibility to embrittlement also depends on the alloying elements principally, but not exclusively, the carbon content. This susceptibility can be expressed as the ‘Carbon Equivalent Value’ (CEV), and the various product standards for carbon steels standard give expressions for determining this value.

BS EN 10025[1] sets mandatory limits for CEV for all structural steel products covered, and it is a simple task for those controlling welding to ensure that welding procedure specifications used are qualified for the appropriate steel grade, and CEV.

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Other mechanical properties of steel

Other mechanical properties of structural steel that are important to the designer include:

  • Modulus of elasticity, E = 210,000 N/mm²
  • Shear modulus, G = E/[2(1 + )] N/mm², often taken as 81,000 N/mm²
  • Poisson’s ratio, = 0.3
  • Coefficient of thermal expansion, = 12 x 10-6/°C (in the ambient temperature range).

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Durability

               

Offsite application of corrosion protection

A further important property is that of corrosion prevention. Although special corrosion resistant steels are available these are not normally used in building construction. The exception to this is weathering steel .

The most common means of providing corrosion protection to construction steel is by painting or galvanizing. The type and degree of coating protection required depends on the degree of exposure, location, design life, etc. In many cases, under internal dry situations no corrosion protection coatings are required other than appropriate fire protection. Detailed information on the corrosion protection of structural steel is available.

Weathering steel is a high strength low alloy steel that resists corrosion by forming an adherent protective rust ‘patina’, that inhibits further corrosion. No protective coating is needed. It is extensively used in the UK for bridges and has been used externally on some buildings. It is also used for architectural features and sculptural structures such as the Angel of the North.

               

Angel of the North

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Stainless steel

               

Typical stress-strain curves for stainless steel and carbon steel in the annealed condition

Stainless steel is a highly corrosion-resistant material that can be used structurally, particularly where a high-quality surface finish is required. Suitable grades for exposure in typical environments are given below.

The stress-strain behaviour of stainless steels differs from that of carbon steels in a number of respects. The most important difference is in the shape of the stress-strain curve. While carbon steel typically exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to the yield stress and a plateau before strain hardening is encountered, stainless steel has a more rounded response with no well-defined yield stress. Therefore, stainless steel ‘yield’ strengths are generally defined for a particular offset permanent strain (conventionally the 0.2% strain), as indicated in the figure on the right which shows typical experimental stress-strain curves for common austenitic and duplex stainless steels. The curves shown are representative of the range of material likely to be supplied and should not be used in design.

Specified mechanical properties of common stainless steels to EN 10088-4[15]
Description
Grade
Minimum 0.2% proof strength (N/mm2)
Ultimate tensile strength (N/mm2)
Elongation at fracture (%)

Basic chromium-nickel austenitic steels
1.4301
210
520 – 720
45

1.4307
200
500 – 700
45

Molybdenum-chromiumnickel austenitic steels
1.4401
220
520 – 670
45

1.4404
220
520 – 670
45

Duplex steels
1.4162
450
650 – 850
30

1.4462
460
640 – 840
25

The mechanical properties apply to hot rolled plate. For cold rolled and hot rolled strip, the specified strengths are 10-17% higher.

Guidelines for stainless steel selection
BS EN ISO 9223[16] Atmospheric Corrosion Class
Typical outdoor environment
Suitable stainless steel

C1 (Very low)
Deserts and arctic areas (very low humidity)
1.4301/1.4307, 1.4162

C2 (Low)
Arid or low pollution (rural)
1.4301/1.4307, 1.4162

C3 (Medium)
Coastal areas with low deposits of salt
Urban or industrialised areas with moderate pollution
1.4401/1.4404, 1.4162
(1.4301/1.4307)

C4 (High)
Polluted urban and industrialised atmosphere
Coastal areas with moderate salt deposits
Road environments with de-icing salts
1.4462, (1.4401/1.4404), other more highly alloyed duplexes or austenitics

C5 (Very high)
Severely polluted industrial atmospheres with high humidity
Marine atmospheres with high degree of salt deposits and splashes
1.4462, other more highly alloyed duplexes or austenitics

Materials suitable for a higher class may be used for lower classes but might not be cost effective. Materials within brackets might be considered if some moderate corrosion is acceptable. Accumulation of corrosive pollutants and chlorides will be higher in sheltered locations; hence it might be necessary to choose a recommended grade from the next higher corrosion class.

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2

    BS EN 10025-2:2019 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels, BSI.

  2. NA+A1:2014 to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005+A1:2014, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures General rules and rules for buildings, BSI

  3. 3.0 3.1

    BS EN 10210-1:2006 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels. Technical delivery requirements, BSI.

  4. BS EN 10346:2015 Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products for cold forming. Technical delivery conditions. BSI

  5. BS EN 1993-1-3:2006 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. General rules – Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting, BSI.

  6. 6.0 6.1

    BS EN 1993-1-4:2006+A1:2015 Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. General rules. Supplementary rules for stainless steels, BSI

  7. BS EN 10088-1:2014
    Stainless steels. List of stainless steels, BSI

  8. BS EN 10025-3: 2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels, Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for normalized / normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels, BSI

  9. BS EN 10025-4: 2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels, Part 4: Technical delivery conditions for thermomechanical rolled weldable fine grain structural steels, BSI

  10. BS EN 10025-5: 2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels, Part 5: Technical delivery conditions for structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance, BSI

  11. BS EN 10025-6: 2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels, Part 6: Technical delivery conditions for flat products of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition, BSI

  12. BS EN 1993-1-10:2005 Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Material toughness and through-thickness properties, BSI.

  13. NA to BS EN 1993-1-10: 2005, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Material toughness and through-thickness properties. BSI

  14. PD 6695-1-10:2009 Recommendations for the design of structures to BS EN 1993-1-10. BSI

  15. 15.0 15.1

    BS EN 10088-4:2009 Stainless steels. Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of corrosion resisting steels for construction purposes, BSI.

  16. BS EN ISO 9223:2012 Corrosion of metals and alloys, Corrosivity of atmospheres, Classification, determination and estimation. BSI

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Resources

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See also


CS:GO – BEST OF PRO RAGE 2017 Ft. s1mple, KennyS, device


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Everybody Watches BRAX: Best Reactions to \”Everybody Hates Swag\” [ft. sgares/n0thing/summit/\u0026 more]


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steel has stepped down from chaos after leading the team into TOP 20 in the world and has retired from Professional CSGO to pursue a future in valorant. Joshua \”steel\” Nissan is permanently banned from competition or involvement in Valveassociated events due to his involvement in the North American match fixing scandal.

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CHUYỆN BÁN ĐỘ \”TRÒ ĐÙA\” MANG TÊN 322 | Góc Nhìn 23 06
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