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perfecto: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Notes:

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The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “has” or “have” with the past participle.

I have studied.
He has written a letter to María.
We have been stranded for six days.

Because the present perfect is a compound tense, two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb.

I have studied.
(main verb: studied ; auxiliary verb: have)

He has written a letter to María.
(main verb: written ; auxiliary verb: has)

We have been stranded for six days.
(main verb: been ; auxiliary verb: have)

In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows:

he
has
ha
hemos
habéis
han

You have already learned in a previous lesson that the past participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or -ido. Remember, some past participles are irregular. The following examples all use the past participle for the verb “comer.”

(yo) He comido.
I have eaten.

(tú) Has comido.
You have eaten.

(él) Ha comido.
He has eaten.

(nosotros) Hemos comido.
We have eaten.

(vosotros) Habéis comido.
You-all have eaten.

(ellos) Han comido.
They have eaten.

For a review of the formation of the past participle [click here].

When you studied the past participle, you practiced using it as an adjective. When used as an adjective, the past participle changes to agree with the noun it modifies. However, when used in the perfect tenses, the past participle never changes.

Past participle used as an adjective:
La cuenta está pagada.
The bill is paid.

Past participle used in the present perfect tense:
He pagado la cuenta.
I have paid the bill.

Here’s a couple of more examples:

Past participle used as an adjective:
Las cuentas están pagadas.
The bills are paid.

Past participle used in the present perfect tense:
Juan ha pagado las cuentas.
Juan has paid the bills.

Note that when used to form the present perfect tense, only the base form (pagado) is used.

Let’s look more carefully at the last example:

Juan ha pagado las cuentas.
Juan has paid the bills.

Notice that we use “ha” to agree with “Juan”. We do NOT use “han” to agree with “cuentas.” The auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentence, not the object. Compare these two examples:

Juan ha pagado las cuentas.
Juan has paid the bills.

Juan y María han viajado a España.
Juan and Maria have traveled to Spain.

In the first example, we use “ha” because the subject of the sentence is “Juan.” In the second example, we use “han” because the subject of the sentence is “Juan y María.”

The present perfect tense is frequently used for past actions that continue into the present, or continue to affect the present.

He estado dos semanas en Madrid.
I have been in Madrid for two weeks.

Diego ha sido mi amigo por veinte años.
Diego has been my friend for 20 years.

The present perfect tense is often used with the adverb “ya”.

Ya han comido.
They have already eaten.

La empleada ya ha limpiado la casa.
The maid has already cleaned the house.

The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated. To make the sentence negative, add the word “no” before the conjugated form of haber.

(yo) No he comido.
I have not eaten.

(tú) No has comido.
You have not eaten.

(él) No ha comido.
He has not eaten.

(nosotros) No hemos comido.
We have not eaten.

(vosotros) No habéis comido.
You-all have not eaten.

(ellos) No han comido.
They have not eaten.

Again, the auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated. Object pronouns are placed immediately before the auxiliary verb.

Pablo le ha dado mucho dinero a su hermana.
Pablo has given a lot of money to his sister.

To make this sentence negative, the word “no” is placed before the indirect object pronoun (le).

Pablo no le ha dado mucho dinero a su hermana.
Pablo has not given a lot of money to his sister.

With reflexive verbs, the reflexive pronoun is placed immediatedly before the auxiliary verb. Compare how the present perfect differs from the simple present, when a reflexive verb is used.

Me cepillo los dientes. (present)
I brush my teeth.

Me he cepillado los dientes. (present perfect)
I have brushed my teeth.

To make this sentence negative, the word “no” is placed before the reflexive pronoun (me).

No me he cepillado los dientes.
I have not brushed my teeth.

For a review of reflexive verbs click [here] and [here].

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Questions are formed as follows. Note how the word order is different than the English equivalent.

¿Han salido ya las mujeres?
Have the women left yet?

¿Has probado el chocolate alguna vez?
Have you ever tried chocolate?

Here are the same sentences in negative form. Notice how the auxiliary verb and the past participle are not separated.

¿No han salido ya las mujeres?
Haven’t the women left yet?

¿No has probado el chocolate ninguna vez?
Haven’t you ever tried chocolate?

Let’s add another verb flashcard for the present perfect tense:

Verb Flashcards
Complete List

Present Perfect

haber + past participle
he hablado, he comido, he vivido

he
has
ha
hemos
habéis
han

    [Update] Pretérito perfecto: the Spanish present perfect tense | perfecto – Vietnamnhanvan

    The pretérito perfecto in Spanish is one of the easier tenses to learn because of its simple conjugation and few irregular verbs. This tense will help you speak about your experiences and events that have happened in the recent past. Read on to learn the uses, conjugations and see some examples.

    El pretérito perfecto

    The pretérito perfecto in Spanish is one of the easier tenses to learn because of its simple conjugation and few irregular verbs. This tense will help you speak about your experiences and events that have happened in the recent past. Read on to learn the uses, conjugations and see some examples.

    Use of pretérito perfecto

    The pretérito perfecto is similar in nature to the English present perfect tense. It is used to describe:

    • actions in the past that have been recently completed
    • actions in the past that started in the past and are still continuing or seen as the present
    • completed actions that influence the present or future
    • experiences in your life that have (or have not) happened
    • Time words

    If you see these time words, you can usually use the pretérito perfecto:

    • este/esta semana, mes, año, tarde, verano, primavera, invierno, otoño, fin de semana
    • hoy
    • últimamente
    • hace 5 minutos, poco, un rato, un momento ,1 hora, 2 horas
    • ya
    • nunca
    • todavía no

    Conjugation of pretérito perfecto

    To form a verb in the present perfect tense in Spanish, we use two elements: the verb haber conjugated in the simple present + the participio pasado

    Below is the table of the present conjugation of the verb haber:

    Present conjugation of the verb haber

    Present conjugation of the verb haber

    The participio pasado can be made easily as well:

    Verbs ending in –AR

    Add –ado to the root verb

    caminar => caminado
    cantar => cantado
    saludar => saludado

    Verbs ending in –er and –ir

    add –ido to the root verb

    salir => salido
    beber => bebido
    comer => comido

    When there is a vowel before –ido, we must add an accent to the –i to make sure that there are two syllables pronounced in the word.

    leer => leído
    traer => traído

    Good news! Estar, ser, and ir are all regular conjugations: estado, sido, and ido.

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    Irregular past participles (participios pasados)

    Lucky for you, there are only a handful of irregular verbs for the participio pasado. Once you know them, they are easy enough to apply because only the verb haber needs to be changed according to each pronoun (yo, tú, él etc.).

    You can also use irregular endings to find out how similar verbs would be conjugated. For example, if the past participle of cubrir is cubierto, then the past participle of descubrir is descubierto.

    Some irregular past participles, participios pasados

    Some irregular past participles, participios pasados

    Examples of pretérito perfecto

    Below are some examples of the perfect tense in use.

    Sara ha vivido en Londres toda su vida.
    Sara has lived in London all her life.

    We use pretérito perfecto because we are describing an action that has started in the past and continues until the present; Sara continues to live in London.

    Esta semana mis padres me han llamado 3 veces.
    This week, my parents have called me 3 times.

    We use pretérito perfecto because it is a completed action that has happened in a time that is still considered the present – this week.

    Nunca hemos probado el ceviche.
    We have never tried ceviche.

    We are describing something that we have never experienced (in our lives). We use pretérito perfecto because there is the possibility that we can try it in the future as our lives are not yet over.

    No quiero ir a ver Batman. Ya lo he visto 2 veces.
    I don’t want to go see Batman. I have already seen it twice.

    We are describing an experience again. I have seen the movie twice already, but that doesn’t mean I won’t see it again at some point in my life.

    El próximo finde he quedado con Albert.
    Next week, I have arranged to meet with Albert.

    Here, an action in the past – arrange to meet – has an influence on the future. We must use pretérito perfecto.

    Maribel ha planeado su viaje para Mallorca.
    Maribel has planned her trip to Mallorca.

    Again, an action in the past – planning a trip – results in influencing the future: Maribel will go on a trip to Mallorca.

    It is important to note that speakers in Spain are more likely to use the pretérito perfecto in instances when many other Spanish speakers would use the pretérito indefinido.

    Are you ready to start applying what you’ve learned to talk about your past experiences and recently completed actions? If you want to learn more, check out our Spanish classes


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    Perfecto (Anuel AA Ft. Ozuna) – LETRA


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    Perfecto (Anuel AA Ft. Ozuna) - LETRA

    Unknown Brain – Perfect 10 (feat. Heather Sommer) [NCS Lyric Video]


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    Lyrics:
    What does perfect even mean?
    Is there even such a thing? Oohh
    Can we switch up all the rules,
    And imagine a utopia,
    Darling I’m just so fed up with,
    These expectations, they keep weighing me down,
    My heart is begging me to get the hell out of my head
    I’m gonna live inside the upside down,
    for a minute and pretend
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Woahhh, Woahhh
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Woahhh, Woahhh
    And if i say it enough,
    It gets ingrained in my head
    And I start to see…
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Honey i’m a perfect 10
    Woahhh
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Honey I’m a, yeah
    (Ohhh)

    Yeah I’ve discussed it with myself,
    And I’m disgusted with the way,
    We’re told to have a certain face,
    A certain weight, be flawless.
    We aren’t pixels on a screen,
    No we’re human, we breathe.
    Every single thing we see curated,
    It’s overrated.
    These expectations, they keep weighing me down,
    My heart is begging me to get the hell out, of my head
    I’m gonna live inside the upside down,
    For a minute and pretend
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Woahhh
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Woahhhh
    And if i say it enough
    It gets ingrained in my head
    And I start to think…
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Woahh
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Honey I’m a, yeah
    (Ohh)
    Wahohhh
    Wahoh
    Honey I’m a perfect 10
    Wahohhh
    Wahoh

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