[Update] How to Draw a Face | faceit major – Vietnamnhanvan

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Facial Proportions – How to Draw a Face

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There are many formulas that one can adapt to draw the facial features in the correct location. There’s a simple approach – one that I first learned and is great for beginners. Then there is the more complex approach using illustrator, Andrew Loomis’ guidelines.

Many people make mistakes when drawing faces because they don’t fully understand facial proportions. Proportion refers to the relationship in size and placement between one object and another.

In this lesson, we’ll look at how to draw a face and we’ll cover several approaches. We’ll begin by exploring the process of drawing a face from the frontal view. In these series of steps, we’ll cover the general locations of the facial features and learn a few proportional comparisons that you can use to ensure that your facial features are in the correct location.

To draw the neck, we’ll simply extend two lines down from the bottom of the ears.

Now we need to add a neck to our floating head. The tendency of most beginning artists is to make the neck too narrow. Generally speaking, the neck extends down from the bottom of the ears. Female necks are slightly more slender, while the necks of males are broader.

Now that we have the hairline in place, we can draw the hair. Shorter hair extends only slightly off of the top of the head, while longer or bushier hair may extend quite a bit. In both cases, however, the hair extends out from the head and should not be drawn directly on the head.

Now we’ll draw the hairline. If you’re drawing someone that has long hair that overlaps the forehead, the hairline may not be visible, but it’s still important to know where it’s located. The hairline is found on the top edge of the square that we drew in step two.

We’ve only sketched in a couple of loose ears for this lesson. If you want to take a closer look at drawing an ear, check out this lesson…

Keep in mind that the ears come out of the head and extend upward slightly. This means that the ears will extend outward from the head, near the eye line.

Next, we’ll draw the ears. Here again, we can use the locations of the features of the face to help us determine the location of the ears. The top of the ears will generally align with the brow line, while the bottom of the ears align with the nose line.

Want some instruction on drawing a mouth? Take a look at these lessons…

We can use the eyes to help us determine the width of the mouth. The corners of the mouth generally align with the inside edges of the pupils. It may be helpful to draw light lines from the pupils to the “mouth line”.

We find the mouth slightly higher than half-way between the bottom of the nose and the chin. Of course, this measurement varies from person to person. We can draw a line to mark the positioning of the mouth.

Need a little help with drawing a nose? Take a look at these lessons…

It may be helpful to draw two light lines down from the inside corners of the eyes to help you find the width of the nose.

Moving down the face, we’ll next draw the nose. The bottom of the nose can be found on the bottom line of the square that we drew in step two. The width of the nose varies from person to person, but is generally as wide as the inside corners of the eyes.

In this lesson, we’re focusing only on drawing the face but if you want more instruction on drawing eyes, take a look at these lessons…

Now that we know where our eyes are located on the face, we can draw them. There’s another measurement to keep in mind. We also should consider the width of the eyes. The width of the head, from ear to ear, generally measures the same length of five “eyes”. This means that if we want to draw the eyes with accurate proportions, then we need to draw them so that they match this approximate measurement.

The brow line is represented by the center line that we drew in step one. So we know that the eyes should be found just below this line, in the center of the head. We can draw a line here for the “eye line”.

Now we have the basic structure of the shape of the face in place. We’ll next locate the eyes. We can use the height of the head to help us determine the location of the eyes on the face. The eyes are generally found on a line in the center of the head.

Now we’ll measure the distance from the center line to the bottom line. You can use your pencil to do this. From the bottom line of the square, use this measurement to mark the location of the bottom of the chin. Then, draw the edges of the chin from each side of the square so that they connect at your marked location.

Next, we’ll draw a square in which each corner touches the circle. This square will eventually represent the edges of the face. The top line will eventually become the bottom hairline. The bottom line will become the nose line, while the center line will become the brow line.

We’ll first draw a circle with two intersecting lines that connect directly in the center. The circle represents the top portion of the head. We’ll use the intersecting lines to determine the locations of the facial features.

We’ll first discuss Loomis’ approach, which is more complex, but more accurate. If you find that this approach is a bit difficult for you, you can skip to the simpler approach further down the page. Remember, either way, the goal is to create a convincing drawing of a face so either approach you take is fine.

“Portrait Drawing The Smart Way” is a complete video course on drawing portraits designed for beginner and intermediate artists.

How to Draw a Face From the Side (Profile)

If you want to draw a face from the side or profile view, these same proportional measurements apply. We’ll simply alter the location of the features, positioning them on the side of the head.

In fact, we can start the process in exactly the same way – starting with a circle with intersecting lines.

Step 1 – Draw a Circle, a Square, and Intersecting Lines

We’ll start in the same way that we did before by drawing a circle, two intersecting lines, and a square that makes contact with the circle at all four corners.

Here again, the top line of our square will become the hairline. The middle line will become the brow line and the bottom line will become the nose line.

How to draw faces side view - step - 1 - Draw a circle and a cross

Step 2 – Draw a Line from the Top of the Head to the Chin

We’ll next mark the location of the bottom of the chin. We can measure the distance from the center of the square to the bottom and use this measurement to mark the bottom of the chin.

With a mark in place for the chin, we’ll draw the front edge of the face. In this case, our subject is facing to the left, so we’ll bring a curved line down from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin.

How to draw a person's face side view - step - 2 - Draw a line from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin

Step 3 – Add a Line from the Bottom of the Chin to the Center of the Square

Next, we’ll draw a line from the bottom of the chin to the center point on the bottom of the square. This line represents the jawline. This line will curve slightly in most cases.

How to draw a face side view step by step - step - 3 - Add a Line from the Bottom of the Chin to the Center of the Square

Step 4 – Determine the Location of the Eyes

Now we’ll measure to the center of the head and place a line to represent the eye line. Again, this line should be drawn just underneath the brow line.

We can also use the circle that we drew with the bottom of the square to draw the backside of the head. Think about the structure of the skull here as you draw this line.

How to draw a face side view - step - 4 - Determine the Location of the Eyes

Step 5 – Draw the Facial Features and Add Shading

Now that we have an idea of the location of the facial features, we can draw them in using contour lines. We’ll also add a bit of shading here to make the face have a sense of form.

Notice how the eyes are set back from the front edge of the face and how the lips and mouth recede at a diagonal towards the neck.

How to draw a face profile view - step - 5 - Draw the Facial Features and Add Shading

Step 6 – Draw the Ear on the Side of the Face

We can use our center line, nose line, and eye line to draw the ear on the side of the face. Since our subject is facing towards the left, the bulk of the ear will be found on the right side of our center line.

As we discussed before, the line drawn for the ear will start on the eye line, extend up to the brow line and then curve down, touching the nose line.

We’ll also go ahead and draw a contour line for the outer edge of the hair and a couple of contour lines for the neck in this step.

How to draw faces side view - step - 6 - Draw the Ear on the Side of the Face

Step 7 – Add the Hair

We’ll keep the hair style consistent with our first drawing and draw the hairline. In this case, the line extends back before making its way down to the ears.

We’ll also add a few hints of shading to make the hair feel like a form.

Sketch a face side view - step - 7 - Add the hair

Summing Up The Andrew Loomis Approach to Drawing a Face

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Andrew Loomis is revered for his step by step approach to drawing heads. As we covered above, his approach divides the head into manageable geometric shapes. Each feature on the face has a specific location relative to the geometric configuration set up in the early stages of the drawing process. Because this method is so accurate, it’s great to use for drawing a head from imagination.

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But this approach is not limited to drawing faces from imagination. It also works when drawing a face from observation. We just have to keep in mind that every person is different and variations of these specific proportions will be noticed.

Here’s a look at a face and head drawn from imagination using the Loomis approach combined with a simpler approach which we discuss a little further down this page. All of the relationships and proportions are identified with the guidelines discussed.

For more on the Loomis method for drawing heads, check out Module 4 from the “Portrait Drawing The Smart Way” course or you can check out his book here
.

A Simple Approach to Drawing a Face

Some may find the Loomis Method a little cumbersome for drawing. Luckily, there is a simpler approach. This approach borrows ideas from the Loomis Method, but simplifies a few of the steps. This formula should be used to help you see and compare. In each stage of the formula, analyze each feature and draw what you see. The result will be a representational portrait of the person you are drawing with all of the features in the right place.

Drawing a portrait is very much like drawing any other subject matter. You have to closely observe the subject in order to draw it accurately. Of course portrait drawing is especially delicate because the goal is to make the portrait resemble the subject closely.

If you know the person, the pressure to produce accuracy can be daunting. But every artist, no matter what their skill level, should take heart. Even the most experienced and well-known portrait artists are presented with challenges. Consider these two quotes from one of the best portrait painters of all time, John Singer Sargent…

“Every time I paint a portrait, I lose a friend.”

“A portrait is a painting in which something is wrong with the mouth.”

Most of us can relate with both of these quotes. We’ve all felt the pressure when drawing or painting a portrait to make it look exactly like our subject – especially when that subject is a friend. For some of us, the pressure is so great, we avoid portraits all together.

It’s often hard to pinpoint a problem in a portrait. We can see that something isn’t quite right, but finding the solution or the fix can really throw some of us. Often it’s a combination of issues that lead to a “less than perfect” portrait. Maybe something “is wrong with the mouth”.

Even though representational portrait drawing is reliant on good observation and accurate mark-making, we can still follow a simple procedure that will lead to better results in our attempts.

Now, let’s take a look at the simpler approach to drawing a face.

I’ve taken all of the steps to drawing a face with this simpler approach and put them into one image. The step by step instructions can be found underneath the image. You’ll notice that some of the steps are the same as we discussed before, with the exception of using the square to determine the hairline, brow line, and nose line.

The first step is to draw a circle to represent the cranium. Next, a line can be drawn to determine the length of the face (Step 1). For most faces, this line should be approximately double the length of the original circle.

Next, lines are drawn from the bottom of that line to the edges of the circle creating the shape of the face (Step 2). From here, we can locate the positions of the facial features.

The “eye” line is in the middle of the face.  (Your eyes aren’t way up on your forehead, so resist the temptation to put them there.) A line is drawn to represent the eye line (Step 3).

The “nose” line is found in the middle of the “eye” line and the bottom of the chin.  When it comes to facial proportion, most noses will end at this line (Step 3). However, there are exceptions to every rule.  Some people have really long noses and some have really short ones.

The mouth line is found approximately one-third of the way down in between the nose line and the bottom of the chin. A line is loosely drawn for its location (Step 3).

Next, we’ll concentrate on the eyes. To find the overall width of the eyes, draw five oval shapes across the eye line. Most faces are about “five eyes” wide. Obviously, people only have two eyes.  The “five eyes” just help to determine the width of the eyes (Step 4).

Once we know the width of the eyes are accurate, we can draw them in the proper location (Step 5).

Now, we’ll determine the width of the nose. For most people, the width of the nose will align with the inside corners of the eyes. We can simply draw two lines down from the inside corners of the eyes to the nose line to find the relative width of the nose (Step 6).

Once we know the width of the nose, we can draw it in place (Step 7).

Now, we can figure the width of the mouth. This measurement varies from person to person, but for most folks, the width of the mouth aligns with the inside portions of the iris or the pupil. So, we’ll simply draw a line straight down from this location to the mouth line to find the corners of the mouth. We’ll draw a line here to indicate where the upper lip meets the bottom lip (Step 8).

Then we can draw the upper and lower lips, knowing that the mouth is in the right spot (Step 9).

Now for the ears. We’ll extend the eye line out to determine the location where the top portion of the ears meet the head. They extend upward a bit and line up with the brow line. The bottom of the ears conveniently align with the nose line (Step 10).

Once we have the ears in place, we can add the eye brows. We’ll use the tops of the ears to make comparisons. For most people, the brow line aligns with the tops of the ears (Step 11).

Before addressing the hair, we’ll add a neck. The neck extends down from the bottom of the ears. For females, this lines extends inward a bit – resulting in a smaller neck. For males, this line still comes in a bit, but to a lesser degree. It’s nearly straight down from the bottom of the ears (Step 12).

The shape of the hair is added next. In most cases, the hair extends off from the top of the cranium and may overlap portions of the forehead (Step 13).

Lastly, shading is added to develop the illusion of form (Step 14).

Reviewing the Generalized Locations of Facial Features

  • The eyes are found in the middle of the head.
  • The corners of the inside of the eyes generally line up with the edges of the nose.
  • The “mouth” line is about one-third below the “nose” line and the bottom of the chin. This line represents where the top lip meets the bottom lip.
  • The inside portions of the pupils or the iris generally line up with the corners of the mouth.
  • The ears are usually found between the “eye” line and the “nose” line, but extend up to the brow line.

When drawing faces, use these standards to help you get your facial proportions correct. Remember, you must look and study your subject. While these standards apply to most of us, they do not apply to all of us.

Shading a Face

Knowing where to place the facial features is clearly important, but in order to communicate a face in a drawing, we’ll also need to add some shading. Shading is simply the process of manipulating value (the darkness or lightness of a color).

The form of the face is developed though the use of value and tone. The relationships of specific values inform the viewer of the location and strength of the light source. It is ultimately the behavior of light on the head which creates the illusion of form.

To better understand how light behaves, we can consider the planes of the head and face. By breaking the face down into simple planes, we can better comprehend how light behaves.

When shading, it’s helpful to think of the head in terms of flat planes. We can see these planes illustrated below…

The planes of the face change direction in space. These changes in direction produce different values depending on the location and strength of the light source. In most cases, the light source will originate from above. This produces areas of darker tone in locations that recede and lighter ones in locations that protrude.

This means that recesses around the eyes, under the nose, bottom lip, and chin are mostly shaded with darker values. Areas that protrude, such as the nose, cheek bones, chin, and lower lip consist mostly of lighter values.

Most faces will have smooth transitions or gradations from light to dark. Creating smooth transitions in value are essential for communicating the texture of skin.

How to shade a face

How you approach shading a face will depend on the medium that you use to draw the face. For graphite, or pencil, you can simply adjust the amount of pressure that you place on the pencil. For very smooth or subtle transitions, you may choose to use a blending stump.

Conclusion

When drawing a portrait, we have to remember that there’s no “one size fits all” solution. There will be slight proportional differences from one person to the next. We can use the techniques explored in this lesson to help us better understand the locations of the features of the face. But if we want our portrait drawings to capture the likeness of the person, then we must rely on observation to capture all of the nuances.

Now that you know how to draw a face and the locations of the facial features, you can draw anyone that you wish. Just remember, knowledge is only part of it. You must practice in order to see the best results with your drawings.

[Update] Face masks: what the data say | faceit major – Vietnamnhanvan

When her Danish colleagues first suggested distributing protective cloth face masks to people in Guinea-Bissau to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Christine Benn wasn’t so sure.

“I said, ‘Yeah, that might be good, but there’s limited data on whether face masks are actually effective,’” says Benn, a global-health researcher at the University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen, who for decades has co-led public-health campaigns in the West African country, one of the world’s poorest.

That was in March. But by July, Benn and her team had worked out how to possibly provide some needed data on masks, and hopefully help people in Guinea-Bissau. They distributed thousands of locally produced cloth face coverings to people as part of a randomized controlled trial that might be the world’s largest test of masks’ effectiveness against the spread of COVID-19.

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Face masks are the ubiquitous symbol of a pandemic that has sickened 35 million people and killed more than 1 million. In hospitals and other health-care facilities, the use of medical-grade masks clearly cuts down transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. But for the variety of masks in use by the public, the data are messy, disparate and often hastily assembled. Add to that a divisive political discourse that included a US president disparaging their use, just days before being diagnosed with COVID-19 himself. “People looking at the evidence are understanding it differently,” says Baruch Fischhoff, a psychologist at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who specializes in public policy. “It’s legitimately confusing.”

To be clear, the science supports using masks, with recent studies suggesting that they could save lives in different ways: research shows that they cut down the chances of both transmitting and catching the coronavirus, and some studies hint that masks might reduce the severity of infection if people do contract the disease.

But being more definitive about how well they work or when to use them gets complicated. There are many types of mask, worn in a variety of environments. There are questions about people’s willingness to wear them, or wear them properly. Even the question of what kinds of study would provide definitive proof that they work is hard to answer.

“How good does the evidence need to be?” asks Fischhoff. “It’s a vital question.”

Beyond gold standards

At the beginning of the pandemic, medical experts lacked good evidence on how SARS-CoV-2 spreads, and they didn’t know enough to make strong public-health recommendations about masks.

The standard mask for use in health-care settings is the N95 respirator, which is designed to protect the wearer by filtering out 95% of airborne particles that measure 0.3 micrometres (µm) and larger. As the pandemic ramped up, these respirators quickly fell into short supply. That raised the now contentious question: should members of the public bother wearing basic surgical masks or cloth masks? If so, under what conditions? “Those are the things we normally [sort out] in clinical trials,” says Kate Grabowski, an infectious-disease epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. “But we just didn’t have time for that.”

So, scientists have relied on observational and laboratory studies. There is also indirect evidence from other infectious diseases. “If you look at any one paper — it’s not a slam dunk. But, taken all together, I’m convinced that they are working,” says Grabowski.

Confidence in masks grew in June with news about two hair stylists in Missouri who tested positive for COVID-191. Both wore a double-layered cotton face covering or surgical mask while working. And although they passed on the infection to members of their households, their clients seem to have been spared (more than half reportedly declined free tests). Other hints of effectiveness emerged from mass gatherings. At Black Lives Matter protests in US cities, most attendees wore masks. The events did not seem to trigger spikes in infections2, yet the virus ran rampant in late June at a Georgia summer camp, where children who attended were not required to wear face coverings3. Caveats abound: the protests were outdoors, which poses a lower risk of COVID-19 spread, whereas the campers shared cabins at night, for example. And because many non-protesters stayed in their homes during the gatherings, that might have reduced virus transmission in the community. Nevertheless, the anecdotal evidence “builds up the picture”, says Theo Vos, a health-policy researcher at the University of Washington in Seattle.

More-rigorous analyses added direct evidence. A preprint study4 posted in early August (and not yet peer reviewed), found that weekly increases in per-capita mortality were four times lower in places where masks were the norm or recommended by the government, compared with other regions. Researchers looked at 200 countries, including Mongolia, which adopted mask use in January and, as of May, had recorded no deaths related to COVID-19. Another study5 looked at the effects of US state-government mandates for mask use in April and May. Researchers estimated that those reduced the growth of COVID-19 cases by up to 2 percentage points per day. They cautiously suggest that mandates might have averted as many as 450,000 cases, after controlling for other mitigation measures, such as physical distancing.

“You don’t have to do much math to say this is obviously a good idea,” says Jeremy Howard, a research scientist at the University of San Francisco in California, who is part of a team that reviewed the evidence for wearing face masks in a preprint article that has been widely circulated6.

But such studies do rely on assumptions that mask mandates are being enforced and that people are wearing them correctly. Furthermore, mask use often coincides with other changes, such as limits on gatherings. As restrictions lift, further observational studies might begin to separate the impact of masks from those of other interventions, suggests Grabowski. “It will become easier to see what is doing what,” she says.

Although scientists can’t control many confounding variables in human populations, they can in animal studies. Researchers led by microbiologist Kwok-Yung Yuen at the University of Hong Kong housed infected and healthy hamsters in adjoining cages, with surgical-mask partitions separating some of the animals. Without a barrier, about two-thirds of the uninfected animals caught SARS-CoV-2, according to the paper7 published in May. But only about 25% of the animals protected by mask material got infected, and those that did were less sick than their mask-free neighbours (as measured by clinical scores and tissue changes).

The findings provide justification for the emerging consensus that mask use protects the wearer as well as other people. The work also points to another potentially game-changing idea: “Masking may not only protect you from infection but also from severe illness,” says Monica Gandhi, an infectious-disease physician at the University of California, San Francisco.

Gandhi co-authored a paper8 published in late July suggesting that masking reduces the dose of virus a wearer might receive, resulting in infections that are milder or even asymptomatic. A larger viral dose results in a more aggressive inflammatory response, she suggests.

She and her colleagues are currently analysing hospitalization rates for COVID-19 before and after mask mandates in 1,000 US counties, to determine whether the severity of disease decreased after public masking guidelines were brought in.

The idea that exposure to more virus results in a worse infection makes “absolute sense”, says Paul Digard, a virologist at the University of Edinburgh, UK, who was not involved in the research. “It’s another argument for masks.”

Gandhi suggests another possible benefit: if more people get mild cases, that might help to enhance immunity at the population level without increasing the burden of severe illness and death. “As we’re awaiting a vaccine, could driving up rates of asymptomatic infection do good for population-level immunity?” she asks.

Back to ballistics

The masks debate is closely linked to another divisive question: how does the virus travel through the air and spread infection?

The moment a person breathes or talks, sneezes or coughs, a fine spray of liquid particles takes flight. Some are large — visible, even — and referred to as droplets; others are microscopic, and categorized as aerosols. Viruses including SARS-CoV-2 hitch rides on these particles; their size dictates their behaviour.

Droplets can shoot through the air and land on a nearby person’s eyes, nose or mouth to cause infection. But gravity quickly pulls them down. Aerosols, by contrast, can float in the air for minutes to hours, spreading through an unventilated room like cigarette smoke.

Visualization of the droplet spread when an N95 mask equipped with an exhalation port is used to impede the emerging jet.

Time-lapse images show how cough droplets spread from a person wearing an N95 mask that has a valve to expel exhaled air.Credit: S. Verma /Phys. Fluids

What does this imply for the ability of masks to impede COVID-19 transmission? The virus itself is only about 0.1 µm in diameter. But because viruses don’t leave the body on their own, a mask doesn’t need to block particles that small to be effective. More relevant are the pathogen-transporting droplets and aerosols, which range from about 0.2 µm to hundreds of micrometres across. (An average human hair has a diameter of about 80 µm.) The majority are 1–10 µm in diameter and can linger in the air a long time, says Jose-Luis Jimenez, an environmental chemist at the University of Colorado Boulder. “That is where the action is.”

Scientists are still unsure which size of particle is most important in COVID-19 transmission. Some can’t even agree on the cut-off that should define aerosols. For the same reasons, scientists still don’t know the major form of transmission for influenza, which has been studied for much longer.

Many believe that asymptomatic transmission is driving much of the COVID-19 pandemic, which would suggest that viruses aren’t typically riding out on coughs or sneezes. By this reasoning, aerosols could prove to be the most important transmission vehicle. So, it is worth looking at which masks can stop aerosols.

All in the fabric

Even well-fitting N95 respirators fall slightly short of their 95% rating in real-world use, actually filtering out around 90% of incoming aerosols down to 0.3 µm. And, according to unpublished research, N95 masks that don’t have exhalation valves — which expel unfiltered exhaled air — block a similar proportion of outgoing aerosols. Much less is known about surgical and cloth masks, says Kevin Fennelly, a pulmonologist at the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland.

In a review9 of observational studies, an international research team estimates that surgical and comparable cloth masks are 67% effective in protecting the wearer.

In unpublished work, Linsey Marr, an environmental engineer at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, and her colleagues found that even a cotton T-shirt can block half of inhaled aerosols and almost 80% of exhaled aerosols measuring 2 µm across. Once you get to aerosols of 4–5 µm, almost any fabric can block more than 80% in both directions, she says.

Multiple layers of fabric, she adds, are more effective, and the tighter the weave, the better. Another study10 found that masks with layers of different materials — such as cotton and silk — could catch aerosols more efficiently than those made from a single material.

Benn worked with Danish engineers at her university to test their two-layered cloth mask design using the same criteria as for medical-grade ventilators. They found that their mask blocked only 11–19% of aerosols down to the 0.3 µm mark, according to Benn. But because most transmission is probably occurring through particles of at least 1 µm, according to Marr and Jimenez, the actual difference in effectiveness between N95 and other masks might not be huge.

Eric Westman, a clinical researcher at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina, co-authored an August study11 that demonstrated a method for testing mask effectiveness. His team used lasers and smartphone cameras to compare how well 14 different cloth and surgical face coverings stopped droplets while a person spoke. “I was reassured that a lot of the masks we use did work,” he says, referring to the performance of cloth and surgical masks. But thin polyester-and-spandex neck gaiters — stretchable scarves that can be pulled up over the mouth and nose — seemed to actually reduce the size of droplets being released. “That could be worse than wearing nothing at all,” Westman says.

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Some scientists advise not making too much of the finding, which was based on just one person talking. Marr and her team were among the scientists who responded with experiments of their own, finding that neck gaiters blocked most large droplets. Marr says she is writing up her results for publication.

“There’s a lot of information out there, but it’s confusing to put all the lines of evidence together,” says Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. “When it comes down to it, we still don’t know a lot.”

Minding human minds

Questions about masks go beyond biology, epidemiology and physics. Human behaviour is core to how well masks work in the real world. “I don’t want someone who is infected in a crowded area being confident while wearing one of these cloth coverings,” says Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

Baseball players, one batting & one catching, and umpire standing behind, wearing masks during the 1918 influenza pandemic

US baseball players wore masks while playing during the 1918 influenza epidemic.Credit: Underwood And Underwood/LIFE Images Collection/Getty

Perhaps fortunately, some evidence12 suggests that donning a face mask might drive the wearer and those around them to adhere better to other measures, such as social distancing. The masks remind them of shared responsibility, perhaps. But that requires that people wear them.

Across the United States, mask use has held steady around 50% since late July. This is a substantial increase from the 20% usage seen in March and April, according to data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle (see go.nature.com/30n6kxv). The institute’s models also predicted that, as of 23 September, increasing US mask use to 95% — a level observed in Singapore and some other countries — could save nearly 100,000 lives in the period up to 1 January 2021.

“There’s a lot more we would like to know,” says Vos, who contributed to the analysis. “But given that it is such a simple, low-cost intervention with potentially such a large impact, who would not want to use it?”

Further confusing the public are controversial studies and mixed messages. One study13 in April found masks to be ineffective, but was retracted in July. Another, published in June14, supported the use of masks before dozens of scientists wrote a letter attacking its methods (see go.nature.com/3jpvxpt). The authors are pushing back against calls for a retraction. Meanwhile, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initially refrained from recommending widespread mask usage, in part because of some hesitancy about depleting supplies for health-care workers. In April, the CDC recommended that masks be worn when physical distancing isn’t an option; the WHO followed suit in June.

There’s been a lack of consistency among political leaders, too. US President Donald Trump voiced support for masks, but rarely wore one. He even ridiculed political rival Joe Biden for consistently using a mask — just days before Trump himself tested positive for the coronavirus, on 2 October. Other world leaders, including the president and prime minister of Slovakia, Zuzana Čaputová and Igor Matovič, sported masks early in the pandemic, reportedly to set an example for their country.

Denmark was one of the last nations to mandate face masks — requiring their use on public transport from 22 August. It has maintained generally good control of the virus through early stay-at-home orders, testing and contact tracing. It is also at the forefront of COVID-19 face-mask research, in the form of two large, randomly controlled trials. A research group in Denmark enrolled some 6,000 participants, asking half to use surgical face masks when going to a workplace. Although the study is completed, Thomas Benfield, a clinical researcher at the University of Copenhagen and one of the principal investigators on the trial, says that his team is not ready to share any results.

Benn’s team, working independently of Benfield’s group, is in the process of enrolling around 40,000 people in Guinea-Bissau, randomly selecting half of the households to receive bilayer cloth masks — two for each family member aged ten or over. The team will then follow everyone over several months to compare rates of mask use with rates of COVID-like illness. She notes that each household will receive advice on how to protect themselves from COVID-19 — except that those in the control group will not get information on the use of masks. The team expects to complete enrolment in November.

Several scientists say that they are excited to see the results. But others worry that such experiments are wasteful and potentially exploit a vulnerable population. “If this was a gentler pathogen, it would be great,” says Eric Topol, director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute in La Jolla, California. “You can’t do randomized trials for everything — and you shouldn’t.” As clinical researchers are sometimes fond of saying, parachutes have never been tested in a randomized controlled trial, either.

But Benn defends her work, explaining that people in the control group will still benefit from information about COVID-19, and they will get masks at the end of the study. Given the challenge of manufacturing and distributing the masks, “under no circumstances”, she says, could her team have handed out enough for everyone at the study’s outset. In fact, they had to scale back their original plans to enrol 70,000 people. She is hopeful that the trial will provide some benefits for everyone involved. “But no one in the community should be worse off than if we hadn’t done this trial,” she says. The resulting data, she adds, should inform the global scientific debate.

For now, Osterholm, in Minnesota, wears a mask. Yet he laments the “lack of scientific rigour” that has so far been brought to the topic. “We criticize people all the time in the science world for making statements without any data,” he says. “We’re doing a lot of the same thing here.”

Nevertheless, most scientists are confident that they can say something prescriptive about wearing masks. It’s not the only solution, says Gandhi, “but I think it is a profoundly important pillar of pandemic control”. As Digard puts it: “Masks work, but they are not infallible. And, therefore, keep your distance.”


Valley of Wolves – Lions Inside [Faceit Major 2018 London Soundtrack]


This song was played in the Group Stage of the Faceit Major London 2018.
IMG by faceitmajor.com
Valley of Wolves
Album: Out For Blood
Label: Position Music
Collection: Artist
Year: 2017
https://www.positionmusic.com/track/MTE1NzcwODItNDI0MmIw/
I do not own any rights to this song, so this video is not monetized by myself. If it is, it is from the rightholder.
[LYRICS]If you leave me to my own device
I never had to compromise
This city’s like a jungle
Gotta make it mine
Put my fear right out of sight
Beat the hustle better get it right
In a game where the strong survive
Only the strong survive
These chains will not hold me down
They’ll break and fall to the ground
Can’t tame these lions inside
The Power is reigning like
Thunder ready for a fight
These Lions inside
These Lions inside
Ohhh Ohhh Ohh
These Lions inside
Ohhh Ohhh Ohh
These Lions inside
I had to learn to be the hero
Started only here from zero
In a city like a jungle I had to get mine
Never give you gotta take
Be the catapult to storm the gates
Cuz a champion is never giving in
Seeing thru to till end of days
Till end of days
These chains will not hold me down
They’ll break and fall to the ground
Can’t tame these lions inside
The Power is reigning like
Thunder ready for a fight
These Lions inside
These Lions inside
The ground that they’re walking ain’t cutting thru this skin
Hunt down their prey till the bitter end
The ground that they’re walking ain’t cutting thru this skin
Hunt down their prey till the bitter end
The ground that they’re walking ain’t cutting thru this skin
Hunt down their prey let the games begin
These chains will not hold me down
They’ll break and fall to the ground
Can’t tame these lions inside
The Power is reigning like
Thunder ready for a fight
These Lions inside
These Lions inside

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

Valley of Wolves - Lions Inside [Faceit Major 2018 London Soundtrack]

CS:GO – G2 Esports vs. Natus Vincere [Dust2] Map 2 – Grand Finals – IEM Katowice 2020


In today’s matches at IEM Katowice: G2 Esports vs. Natus Vincere
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CS:GO - G2 Esports vs. Natus Vincere [Dust2] Map 2 - Grand Finals - IEM Katowice 2020

🔴LIVE: [VN] StarLadder Berlin Major 2019 – Grand Final – Astralis vs. AVANGAR


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🔴LIVE: [VN] StarLadder Berlin Major 2019 - Grand Final - Astralis vs. AVANGAR

THE G.O.A.T.?! BEST OF s1mple! (2021 Highlights)


COOL SKINS FOR EVERYONE (18+ ONLY): https://skin.club/en/p/MMBXFZAQNT?utm_source=youtube\u0026utm_medium=preroll\u0026utm_campaign=SNIPE2DIE​​ (UP TO 12% TO DEPOSIT BONUS)
A compilation of s1mple’s best plays throughout 2021 so far as he has already gotten tons of highlights from only a couple of tournaments. He really is aiming for the 1 spot this year so far. What do you think? Let me know in the comments below. I hope you will like the video! s1mple​ natusvincere​ bestplayer​ best​ plays​ navi
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Audio credit to:
https://www.twitch.tv/esl_csgo​
https://www.twitch.tv/esl_csgo​b
https://www.twitch.tv/blastpremier​
Outro Song:
[Electro Pop] Versio Feel It (ft. Nar)
https://goo.gl/N6nuCQ
Copyright info:
This video is recorded using GOTV which is free to use, stream and publish by Valve the developer of this game CounterStrike: Global Offensive.
ENJOY!

THE G.O.A.T.?! BEST OF s1mple! (2021 Highlights)

G2 vs Hellraisers – Dust 2 (FACEIT Major: London 2018)


FACEIT LEGENDSStage FACEITMAJOR
🎥 Where can I watch live?
The best way to watch the FACEIT Major is via watch.faceitmajor.com
where you can get exclusive giveaways, viewer prizes, Quests and more.
🔹 How do I receive drops for watching the FACEIT Major?
Throughout the FACEIT Major, viewers can receive both FACEIT Points and Valve CS:GO drops for watching live.
Viewers can receive FACEIT Points by watching on YouTube Gaming. All you have to do is link your FACEIT account to your YouTube Gaming account by following the steps in this
handy guide https://support.google.com/youtubegaming/answer/7577332?hl=enGB
and tune in between 5th – 23rd September.
FACEIT Major: London 2018 is the 13th Valvesponsored CounterStrike: Global Offensive Major Championship and the second Major of 2018.
The prize pool is once again $1,000,000 and the 24team format introduced at the previous Major will be used again.
This is the first Major to be held by FACEIT.
FACEIT London Major Tickets: http://www.faceitmajor.com
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📸 https://www.instagram.com/faceitcom/
🎮 https://www.faceit.com/en

G2 vs Hellraisers - Dust 2 (FACEIT Major: London 2018)

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆWiki

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