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If a love story does not have “an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending,” (via Romance Writers of America), or an HEA, does it fit in the romance genre?
In a word: nope.
For those who maybe don’t spend every day reading and reading about romance novels, let me clarify a few terms. HEA stands for Happily Ever After and indicates the kind of dreamy fairytale romance ending romance readers live for. It used to mean marriage and babies, but the expectation has changed along with the times, blurring the lines between HEA and HFN. HFN stands for Happy For Now, providing a resolution that implies a positive outcome, if not guaranteeing it. In my world, both HEAs and HFNs qualify as “happy endings,” but many romance readers have their preferences.
This HEA argument seems to circle back around in the romance community every couple of months. Even Book Riot posted an article called “Sometimes I Want a Romance Without the HEA” a couple of weeks ago and an open-minded discussion last year. But as the kids say, “I can’t even” anymore with this. I’m an ENTJ, a pragmatist, and a former publicist specializing in romance and I’m just not having it. I don’t have a lot of hard-and-fast rules for books, but I’m putting my foot down on this one.
If it doesn’t have a happy ending, it’s not a Romance.
Not all love stories are romances. Something can be a great love story and still not fit in the romance genre. If your love story doesn’t have a happy ending, you have literally every other genre to play in. But if you’re going to stick that “Romance” label on it in an effort to tap into the lucrative romance-loving community, it better damn well have a happy ending – or at least a hopeful one. To do otherwise is a betrayal of the unspoken author-reader contract.
A majority of readers read romance specifically for that HEA and they trust authors to give it to them. We are willing to be dragged through despairing lows of a heart-wrenching story because we know the author is not going to leave us there. You can make us cry tears of pain as long as you end with tears of joy and we will love you for it.
We want the happy ending, we need it, and we deserve it. Life is stressful and hard and we want this escape. We need to see love claim victory over everything else. We’ve invested time and money and emotional capital in a book labeled “Romance” and we deserve the happiness promised to us by that label.
Let’s say one of those readers has had a particularly bad day, week, or year — and an author who has promised them a happy ending by marketing a book as a Romance reneges on that promise… why would you want to do that to someone? If they’ve spent the only spare $8 they had this month because they loved the beautiful couple on the cover and the back cover copy sounded delicious and they just really needed something that ends well in their life (just this once) — and you deny them that? For what?
Critics will say that romance is too formulaic. That if you know how it ends, there’s no point in reading it. Sorry, but no. What are the requirements of this genre? A romantic relationship between two (or more) people that ends hopefully, if not blindingly happily. That’s all there is to it. There are millions upon millions of stories to be told within that framework. There are subgrenres and sub-subgenres. There is so much room and variety here; we just ask for these two small things.
No one asks for mysteries to not have a crime, or historicals to take place in the future, or fantasies to ditch all magical/mystical elements, or horrors to be bright and happy. Why is it okay to ask romance to remove the one thing expected of the genre, an HEA? (Spoiler: it’s not okay.) If you want a sad or tragic ending, go read something else. You have the other 66% of the fiction market to choose from. It’s okay to switch back and forth between genres to get what you need from your books. Today alone, I read part of: a book on quantum physics, a sparkly middle grade fantasy, and a book to help me get my life in better order. I didn’t expect each book to fulfill all my reading needs on its own.
Even more critics will say romance isn’t realistic, that the stories don’t reflect reality. For one, there actually are people out there who have found their One True Love in a way they would describe as a “sweeping romance” or “fairytale love story.” For two, are you actually telling me that Fiction has to accurately reflect reality? Is that really an argument you want to make? Please, allow me to direct your attention to the entire speculative fiction genre umbrella, thrillers, action/adventures, medical fiction, westerns, and basically every fiction book that has ever been published and most of the memoirs. We don’t read books to read exactly the same things that happen in our real lives. Or, at least, I don’t. Nor anyone I personally know. But you do you, I guess?
At risk of sounding fatalistic, if romances don’t require happy endings, what is even the point of having genres? A genre label exists to give the reader an idea of what to expect. You can’t just change those expectations because you want to or because you feel like reading/writing “something different.”
The happy ending in Romance is a feature, not a bug.
[Update] ShareTechnote | hfn – Vietnamnhanvan
Subframe Number, SFN and HFN
In any communication, one of the most important requirement would be that the transmitter and reiver operate at the same tempo, more technically speaking that the transmitter and reciever should operates in synchronized mode.
Speaking in laymen’s terminology, the transmitter and reciever has it’s own clock and they have to synchronize the clock before the communication starts.
What kind of clock they have in LTE ? Like our analog wrist clock, LTE clock has two arms. One arm ticks every 10 ms and the other arm ticks every 1 ms. Again as in the wrist clock, each of ticks has specific numbers and the numbers has a certain range.
In LTE, the arm ticking in 10 ms interval has numbers between 0 and 1023 and these numbers are called SFN (System Frame Number) and the other arm ticking in 1 ms interval has numbers between 0 and 9, and this number is called subframe number. When subframe number hits the max value (i.e, 9), it goes back to 0 and SFN number get increased by 1. When SFN number hits the max value (i.e 1023), it goes back to 0.
UE and eNB need to maintain the synchnronization on subframe number and SFN during the whole communication period.
Based on Subframe and SFN definition, you may notice that the longest time span for the timing synchronization without resetting to 0 is 1023 SFN. It is 1024 x 10 ms, which is 10240 ms (=10240 subframe = 10.24 sec). Most of timing related parameters (e.g, Idle mode DRX, Connected Mode DRX, BSR Report period etc) are configured within this max timiing value.
However, as LTE evolves, especially as LTE tries to cover MTC or IoT related features it turned out that this max time span is not big enough to schedule all the timing related parameters (e.g, eDRX, PSM configuration). To support this kind of new requirement, LTE has introduced another timer(clock) called HFN (Hyper Frame Number or Hyper SFN). HFN is a timer at the next level to SFN. HFN ranges between 0 and 1023 and the value increases by 1 when SFN reaches 1023 and reset to 0.
Summary of Timers
Max Time in ms
Max Tim in sec
How to Synchronize these timers between UE and eNB ?
Before the transmitter (eNode B) and the reciever (UE) in LTE start communicating each of other they have to set these two clock arms to be the same number and this synchronization happens during cell search and timing synch process. In short, they synchronize the tempo (exact time the arm ticks) by cell search and timing sync and UE get SFN sync from MIB which carries SFN number in it. How UE can get synchronized for HFN ? It can synchronize the HFN based on HFN value in SIB1.
Subframe Synchronization : This is done by detecting synchronization signal (PSS and SSS). As you would know of, PSS and SSS is located in subframe 0 and 5 in legacy LTE and LTE BL/CE (LTE-NB Synchronization signal (NPSS and NSSS) is different from legacy LTE and LTE BL/CE). In legacy LTE and LTE BL/CE, if UE detects PSS/SSS it is considered that the subframe is subframe 0 or 5. Then how UE can figure out whether it is subframe 0 or 5. The answer lines in the contents of SSS. You would notice from Symbol Generation of SSS section that the SSS sequence data is different between subframe 0 and 5.
SFN Synchronization : SFN Synchronization is done by PBCH (MIB). eNB transmit SFN value at every PBCH and UE can synchronize its SFN number from this value.
HFN Synchronization : SFN Synchronization is done by hyperSFN IE in SIB1. eNB can transmit hyperSFN in every SIB1 and UE can synchronize its SFN from this number.
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Демобилизованный из армии Данила Багров возвращается в родной город. Скучная, однообразная жизнь провинции не может устроить крепкого русского парня, и он решает поехать в Питер, испытать себя. Тем более, что там, по слухам уже давно процветает его старший брат.
Но \”новая русская\” жизнь северной столицы оказывается слишком неожиданной. Даниле предстоит многое узнать… и со многими разобраться…
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นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูเพิ่มเติม
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HFN सफाई की उपयोगिता सफाई कैसे हमें अंदर से परिवर्तित करती है : Sahaj Marg :How Cleaning Transforms
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