faceit major 2018: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้
Social media use can have major impacts on one’s construction of identity, sexuality, and gender. However, some social media sites exhibit problematic and prejudiced themes through their photo and video posts. This paper examines two Instagram sites specifically targeting traditionally college-aged individuals. These sites have tens of thousands of followers, post frequently, and solely focus on highlighting the college experience. Through a textual analysis of these two sites, problematic themes emerged, including objectification of female college students, submissiveness of female college students, and emphasis on a young white college experience. These themes are detailed and explored, followed by a discussion on their potential impacts on broader societal structures and ideas for education on gendered prejudices in the media.
With 800 million active monthly users, Instagram is the second most popular social networking site in the United States (Smith & Anderson, 2018). In fact, the image-sharing app has doubled its user base in the last 2 years with 71% of its users between the ages of 18 and 24 (Smith & Anderson, 2018). Given these demographics, it’s of no surprise that dozens of Instagram pages dedicated to the collegiate lifestyle have emerged with immense popularity.
Instagram pages like Four Year Party and College Nationwide boast tens of thousands of followers interested in getting an inside peek into the college lifestyle. Four Year Party has over 81,500 followers and emphasizes the tagline, “We are not here for the credits, just for the parties!” College Nationwide encourages its 57,600 followers to check out “Hot chicks and rad pics.” With such a broad reach of a very specific demographic, the influence of these two pages is something to consider. But what kind of influence do these pages have?
Four Year Party and College Nationwide share photos and short videos to tens of thousands of college-aged people on a daily basis. These posts receive thousands of likes, comments, and shares. However, the messages these pages are promoting are problematic in that they reinforce the racialized and gendered inequalities present in US culture. Through a textual analysis of the two Instagram pages, hegemonic themes emerge. These themes are as follows: objectification of female college students, submissiveness of female college students, and emphasis on a young, white collegiate experience. This article attempts to further explore these themes and discuss their implications on broader societal structures. Ideas for pedagogy to disrupt these prejudices are also discussed.
Social Media and Gendered Issues
Social media use greatly impacts self-identification and self-construction of gender, especially among female users (Blower, 2016). Online environments allow women to create their own image of self and construct their own idea of femininity. The role of sexuality in these online environments holds major influence in this self-construction. Sexuality discourses on social media are shaping women’s experience with technology, their perceptions of themselves, and ultimately, their educational and career choices and goals (Ashcraft, 2015). Young women can actively participate in this sexual conversation via sexting and sexual messaging through apps like Snapchat. These experiences can shape a woman’s gender construction and self-expectations of sexuality as early as 12 years old (Garcia-Gómez, 2017).
While many of these choices are played out in an online or virtual environment, the consequences of these choices translate over into the real world prompting both psychological and physical effects. More frequent use of image-based social media platforms like Instagram is linked to greater self-objectification, especially when the user engages with celebrity culture (Fardouly, Willburger, & Vartanian, 2017). However, this link to also present when the user engages with non-celebrities on social media as well. The use of social media to observe and monitor attractive peers, combined with exposure to increasingly sexualized mass media, stimulate self-objectification and critical self-surveillance over time (Vandenbosch & Eggermont, 2016). This self-objectification and self-surveillance can led to a misunderstood or misrepresented idea of peer norms regarding sex. Van Oosten, Peter, and Vandenbosch (2017) suggest this misrepresentation can lead to greater promiscuity among teenage users and even a willingness to engage in casual sex offline based on online perceptions of peer norms. Social media can perpetuate rape culture offline via online celebration of male sexual conquests, slut shaming, and sexualization of women (Sills et al., 2016).
Both male and female users report psychological impacts due to exposure to sexualized social media content. For example, greater Facebook involvement predicted greater body consciousness and thus greater chances of body shaming regardless of gender (Manago et al., 2014). However, this link was stronger for female users. This gender difference is worth noting and does appear as a prominent theme in research across this area of interest. The portrayal of each gender in a social media environment can be problematic, especially when this portrayal is occurring in the realm of sexuality. Sexualized body parts claim different responses based on gender. Male abs are viewed as sexualized, yet strong, dominant, and desirable. Female breasts, on the other hand, are viewed as sexualized, yet objectified and shameful (Ringrose & Harvey, 2015). Males are more likely to be shown on social media as dominant, active, and independent, while feminine traits include attractiveness and dependence (Rose et al., 2012). Even athletes, who regardless of gender are strong and active, fall victim to gendered roles on social media. Male athletes appear in active performance roles, while female athletes tend to be posed in non-active positions (Emmons & Mocarski, 2014).
The production of social media is also important to understand when analyzing gendered issues online. Social media creation is gendered free labor (Duffy, 2015). Many social media sites, including the two chosen for this analysis, Four Year Party and College Nationwide, survive solely on user-generated content mostly from female users. Women create their own photos or posts and send them into these sites with no financial reward. In return, they get “likes” and followers. They are providing unpaid labor to help bolster these male-dominated sites of production. Though these photos are typically generated by women, they fall victim to the male gaze via captioning, edits, and comments. This male gaze places women in objectified roles from the get go (Mulvey, 1999).
It is valuable to also consider a postfeminist approach when discussing social media and the construction of gender. While male captioning, edits, and comments do place women in objectified roles, original content created by women on social media can prove to be empowering. Social media platforms are distinct from traditional media in that they give the user power. Historically, women were solely consumers of media, but social media allow women to be creators. Young women should be taken seriously as cultural producers (Dobson, 2015). Women can use social media to create and distribute their own self-representations to the public. Pop celebrity Miley Cyrus serves as a highly visible example of the power of social media for self-construction of identity. Miley used her Twitter page to counteract her Disney-manufactured image of “the girl next door.” She used Twitter to publicly display hidden aspects of her identity and construct herself as a self-proclaimed “freak” in an effort to empower herself and other young women (Dubrofsky & Wood, 2014).
Postfeminist empowerment isn’t only reserved for young women on social media, as demonstrated by a case study on women over 40 using Instagram (Tiidenberg, 2018). These women used Instagram to reinstate their visibility and to push back against the notion that middle-aged women are no longer worthy of public display. They used Instagram to promote themselves in the realms of fashion, fitness, and traveling, and provided resistance to the cultural norm that women over 40 should only self-identify as non-sexual mothers and caretakers.
The postfeminist viewpoint on social media and self-construction of identity is, however, complicated and its nuances should be recognized. Ringrose (2011) described social media platforms as “gendered and sexualized risk and opportunity,” emphasizing the complexities that must be addressed. Social media platforms can serve as potential sites for resistance and independence, but can still reify the objectification and sexualization of women online. Van der Nagel (2013) explored this duality in a case study of reddit gonewild—a social media site encouraging amateur pornography through user-submitted photos. Women anonymously post photos of their naked bodies to this site. In return, they receive the pleasure of other users’ admiration and the comfort of anonymity. However, Van der Nagel (2013) found that the most popular section of the site was dominated by young, white, female bodies, thus serving as an exclusionary site to people who don’t fit those categories. This exclusionary theme was also found in the analysis of two Instagram sites for the current study, as the content was focused on the young, white college experience.
Gill (2007) articulated the complexities of a postfeminist reading of social media sites saying, “notions of autonomy, choice, and self-improvement sit side-by-side with surveillance, discipline, and the vilification of those who make the wrong choices” (p. 163). Women can use social media to become important creators of cultural content and self-construct their own gendered and sexual identities. In many ways, social media can serve as a unique site of resistance that is not available via traditional media platforms. However, these sites can also serve to exclude certain groups and allow for the objectification of women. Women may post sexually-explicit photos online for their own empowerment, but through male commenting, editing, and redistributing, this content can be transformed into degrading and objectifying material. Because social media platforms are open to the public and fairly easy to use, original content of women embracing their sexuality and femininity can be quickly and easily transformed into sites of hostile surveillance via the male gaze. It is important to realize this duality of freedom and oppression offered by social media.
Media and Intersectionality
In addition to understanding gendered issues on social media, it’s also important to analyze intersectionality, including issues of race and class. The relationship between these issues form a complex problem in today’s media environment. There has been a battle in traditional media outlets for greater diversity on and off screen. This battle is bleeding over into newer media technologies like social media and video game studies. Robinson, Callister, Clark, and Phillips (2008) suggested that characters in some video games fall subject to gendered and racial prejudices, emphasizing the intersectionality of the issue. More male than female characters where shown and female characters were shown in sexualized roles. In addition, most of these characters were white, with the Hispanic culture vastly underrepresented. Waddell, Ivory, Conde, Long, and McDonnell (2014) noted similar findings, suggesting white male characters were disproportionately represented against females and characters of color. The authors also argued that character portrayals in video games can influence users’ perceptions of social reality.
While on-screen representation continues to be a point of contention among scholars and practitioners, behind-the-scenes representation is becoming a battleground as well. While traditional media outlets like television shows are including more casts of diverse backgrounds, the production of these shows is still dominated by white males (Molina-Guzmán, 2016). The barrier to entry for production jobs is high for females and non-whites. Current media practices not only create barriers to inclusion for certain groups, but tend to normalize existing patterns of relegation on and off the screen (Tukachinsky, 2015). Social media is an interesting medium to explore because it combines user production and user consumption, thus perpetuating these intersectional problems.
Social media knocks down barriers to entry for many groups. No special skills are needed to create a social media post. While the inclusion is a positive, this can lead to issues as well. With no real monitoring system or set of ethics, as would be employed by traditional mediums, social media posts go largely unfiltered and unregulated. This can lead to a resurgence of racism online (Cisneros & Nakayama, 2015). Social media platforms have also been accused of reproducing whiteness and discrediting non-white experiences (Nakayama, 2017). This is especially relevant for sites that promote the collegiate lifestyle like the ones being explored in this study.
Diversity is an important topic in college recruitment, especially in the media produced by colleges to recruit students of color. While there has been a push for college recruiting materials to show more diversity in its student body, some colleges are actually being criticized for overshowing or exploiting the topic (Pippert, Essenburg, & Matchett, 2013). Because some of these traditional college recruiting techniques have come under fire, many students are using social media to do their own research on perspective schools. Black students, especially, are using social media tools to scout for colleges that adhere to their values and needs (Matabane & Merritt, 2014). However, some students of color are dealing with racial issues during this process. There is a perception that “college student” means young, white person, and excludes people based on age and race (Hinton, 2016).
Fraternity Culture and Hyper-Masculinity
Almost 400,000 undergraduate men are members of collegiate fraternities in the United States (North American Intrafraternity Conference [NAIF], 2016). Their influence on college campuses has been a hot topic of debate among university administrators, and has gained the attention of the national media. In a 2016 interview with U.S. News & World Report, Harvard University president Drew Faust said, “They (fraternities) play an unmistakable and growing role in student life, in many cases enacting forms of privilege and exclusion at odds with our deepest values” (Mills, 2016). Given this potential for problematic social influence, it is important to understand hyper-masculine fraternity culture and its role in the marginalization of female students.
The structure of collegiate fraternities and sororities, commonly referred to as “Greek Life,” reinforces separate and gendered social spheres. Fraternity members live in all-male environments that are situated as hyper-masculine and sexualized spaces. Female sorority members, while also living in a single-gender environment, do not enjoy the same privileges of sexual control and (mis)conduct. These women must adhere to strict rules about male guests and are encouraged to socialize within the cultural codes of the fraternity house (Sweeney, 2014). Through these gendered double-standards, Greek Life serves to facilitate male dominance and female submissiveness. The fraternity structure confirms male dominance and aggression as sexually appropriate behaviors for young men (Kalof & Cargill, 1991). This confirmation is visually reified through the Instagram posts of the two sites explored in this study, as the theme of male domination/female submissiveness emerged.
All-male groups, like collegiate fraternities and athletic teams, create an environment that fosters hyper-masculinity in its members. These hyper-masculine attitudes lead to an increase in viewpoints that justify rape and sexual aggression toward women (Murnen & Kohlman, 2007). Men involved in fraternities are more likely to be hostile against women who have rejected their sexual advances in an attempt to save face among their male peers. This emotional hostility leads to increased physical and sexual aggression toward women (Corprew & Mitchell, 2014). Fraternity membership is also linked to favorable group perceptions of high-risk alcohol use and approval of non-consensual sex (Kingree & Thompson, 2013).
In addition to sexual aggression toward women, the objectification of women is also linked to collegiate fraternity culture. Bleecker and Murnen (2005) found that men involved in fraternities had significantly more images of sexualized women displayed in their rooms than men not in fraternities. These images were significantly more degrading toward women, reinforcing women’s roles as sexual objects. Seabrook, Ward, and Giaccardi (2016) suggested that this objectification is related to increased sexual violence toward women. Their findings stated that young men in fraternities are more accepting of the objectification of women as a masculine social norm, and feel more pressure to uphold these norms given their all-male environment. This theme of objectification of women is also prominent in the Instagram posts of the two sites analyzed for this study. The cultural problems of the objectification of women and sexual aggression toward women are prominent among collegiate males, especially those involved in Greek Life. This study argues that these real-world injustices are being reinforced online via social media platforms, helping to perpetuate the cycle of gendered violence and inequality among college-aged individuals.
A total of 600 Instagram posts from Four Year Party and College Nationwide were analyzed during this textual analysis. A total of 300 posts from each site were collected through screenshots. The number of likes and top comments were included in the screenshot. The two sites were chosen based on number of followers, frequency of posts, and dedication to showcasing the collegiate lifestyle. Four Year Party has over 81,500 followers and posts videos or photos several times a day. College Nationwide has 57,600 followers and posts daily. Using the previous research detailed above as a guide, a textual analysis was conducted to tease out common themes among the 600 posts. These themes are as follows: objectification of female college students, submissiveness of female college students, and emphasis on a young, white collegiate experience.
Objectification of Female College Students
The first theme discovered through this textual analysis is the objectification of female college students. Women are displayed frequently as sexual objects on both Four Year Party and College Nationwide. The most reoccurring type of post across both sites highlights the attractiveness of a single female college student or a group of female college students. These are usually posted daily and show female students from a variety of colleges. An example of this kind of post features two young women. It is nighttime and they are standing side-by-side in a swimming pool in knee-deep water. Their backs are to the camera, each topless, wearing only thong bikini bottoms with a spotlight shining across their lower backs. The photo cuts off at the women’s necks, and their faces are not in the shot. Their bodies are tan and thin with their backs arched and their buttocks centered in the photo. The caption states, “Vols bitch,” referring to the University of Tennessee and their mascot the Volunteers. The women’s names are not revealed and the focus of the post is their sexualized body parts rather than their faces or smiles.
These frequent types of posts, usually occurring daily, attract the attention of thousands of followers with likes and comments on how sexually attractive these female college students are. The posts feature women from different colleges, but they are usually posed in similarly provocative ways with little or no clothing on. The women’s faces are rarely shown and many times the women’s backs are to the camera. By not naming the women, showing them without clothing, and focusing on their sexualized body parts rather than their faces, the women are viewed as objects of desire not as individuals. In fact, the viewer comments suggest no one really cares who they are as long as they can be viewed and sexually fetishized. The male gaze upon these women is dominant.
The view of women as objects rather than individuals reemphasizes the idea that men should be able to determine a woman’s worth by her use-value. Men use and gaze upon women as they see fit, disregarding any individuality. A photo on College Nationwide shows four young women holding hands on the beach with their backs to the camera. The women have on thong bikinis. The caption underneath reads, “Line ‘em up & rate ‘em,” encouraging male followers to rate the women’s bodies, specifically their buttocks. This photo gained over 1300 likes and almost 70 comments where male commenters ranked the women on a scale from 1 to 10.
In addition to objectifying female college students through the male gaze, their bodies are objectified through action. That is, female bodies are actually used as objects in many of the posts. One such post shows a young tanned woman in a black bikini on a patio. Her back is to the camera with her face cut out of the photo. The center of the photo highlights her buttocks clenching a can of Budweiser. The caption reads, “The Booty Koozie.” In this case, her buttocks are actually being used as an object—a beer can koozie. There are several other posts showing women holding beer cans with either their buttocks or their breasts. Their bodies are viewed as simply a means to hold alcohol to be used to the benefit of men.
Female breasts and buttocks are also used as writing materials and message boards to display the mottos and slogans of the two Instagram sites. One video post shows a young college woman face down on a bed. She is topless with only a thong bottom on. The video shows her pulsating her buttocks as the words, “4 Year Party” are written across them. Again, her face is not shown and the video cuts off at her neck. The caption reads, “We Love Spring Break.” This post has almost 46,000 views. Sometimes, the message written has to do with the college experience itself. Another post centers on two naked breasts, covered only by the female’s hands. One breast says “Rush” and the other shows the Greek symbols for the fraternity Pi Kapp. Fraternities, typically all-male collegiate organizations, are using female body parts as objects upon which to write recruitment messages for other young men.
Women’s bodies are shown as gifts to be given, received, and exchanged by men. This kind of objectification was especially prominent on these sites during Christmas time. One post shows a young woman in a thong one-piece, again with her back to the camera, and her face covered by long blonde hair. She has a gold bow on one of her buttocks with the caption, “One present to open on Xmas eve.” A similar post features two young women in red and white bras and panties with Santa hats on. They are standing side by side in a giant box with a bow and ribbon on it, signifying them as gifts to be had.
One of the most common video posts show women’s breasts or buttocks being used as funnels. One example is a video of a group of college students on the beach for Spring Break. A young woman in sunglasses and a black bikini top is pressing her breasts together with her hands. Meanwhile a young man is kneeling before her with his mouth at her breasts. Another hand pours a bottle of vodka down the woman’s breasts while the man drinks it from between them. The caption reads, “Who need cups when you got boobs? NO ONE!” There are over 2700 Instagram posts with the hashtag #BoobLuge. Buttocks are also used as funnels for alcohol. One such video shows a young woman with a bikini cover-up on. A young man comes up behind her without her knowing and pulls up her cover-up, revealing only a black thong bikini bottom. Another man starts pouring beer down her lower back. The first young man starts drinking the beer from between her buttocks. The caption reads, “Sometimes you gotta work for it if you really want it.” This shows not only female objectification, but unwanted and unknown male advances.
The objectification of women’s bodies is visually prominent across these 600 posts. However, another layer of objectification is added through the captions and hashtags created by the sites’ designers. These textual elements add another dynamic to this problematic theme because the objectification is not subtle or unspoken, it is announced and celebrated. One post features a female college student with her breasts on display and the caption, “Load the cannons.” Here, female breasts are referred to and treated as weapons. A young woman in a similar pose was given the caption, “Tits out for Tigers,” relating to her school’s collegiate mascot. This posts emphasizes female body parts as a way to celebrate a male sporting victory. Because these sites are focused on the college experience, sports is a common theme across many of the posts. Female collegiate athletes are typically sexualized. A photo of a collegiate volleyball team was posted with the caption, “Volleyball shorts though.” This post does not celebrate the athleticism or accomplishment of the team, but instead sexualizes the athletes and only focuses on their bodies. Another post shows a college woman with a shirt on that reads “Fucking is my Cardio,” insinuating that sex is the only acceptable athletic activity for a female.
These captions hold a lot of power on these social media sites. They can turn a fairly common and non-problematic photo into one that objectifies women with a few words. For example, there are many photos of college students on Spring Break. Yes, they are shown in bikinis, but given the beach setting, they are not overtly sexual or objectifying. However, by adding certain captions, a different effect is made. Captions like, “Shoreside cheeks,” “Cheeks out for Spring Break,” and “Cheeks out in January,” now turn the focus of the photo onto the women’s buttocks. A few simple words can make all the difference. Women are also usually referred to as “buffs, dimes, chicks, and babes.” Using these terms discounts the individual and groups all female college students into the category of nameless sexual objects.
Women as Submissive to Men
Another theme uncovered during this textual analysis is the idea that women are submissive to men, specifically, female college students are secondary and submissive to their male counterparts. This theme is perhaps the most disturbing because it shows and encourages the assault of women. In many posts, women are shown as victims of male aggression or violence, and this aggression is celebrated as part of male dominance and masculinity. There are several photos of young men biting young women’s breasts and slapping their buttocks with captions like, “This dude is doing Spring Break right,” and “After this he died a happy man.” A slow-motion video shows two women standing next to each other in bikini’s with their backs to the camera as two male hands smack both of them from behind. The caption reads, “Ask and ye shall receive.” A similar slow-motion video shows a man slapping a woman’s buttocks with the caption, “Hit ‘em from the back.” Another photo shows a woman in a bra and panties lying face down on a bed with a red handprint on her buttock. The caption reads, “Always leave your mark.”
Male aggression and violence toward women is celebrated and rewarded in many of the photos and videos on these sites. This theme suggests women are submissive to men and justifies dominant male behavior and physical strength over them. In addition to physical violence against women, sexual aggression and violence is also highlighted and encouraged. Several videos show men taking sexual advantage of asleep or intoxicated women both in the public and the private spheres. One video shows a young man holding up a women who is so drunk she can barely stand up on her own. They are at crowded outdoor party, and he is kissing her forcefully with his hand between her legs. The couple falls over with the man landing on top of the woman as they hit the ground. The caption reads, “Pubic display of affection.” Another video shows an almost identical situation at a bar. A young man is holding up a highly intoxicated woman with his hands up her shirt. They eventually both fall over, again with the man falling on top of the woman. A photo displaying this theme shows a male college student sucking on an intoxicated woman’s breasts in public, while another post features a women in a submissive position on her back while men drink alcohol off of her bare stomach.
Some of these posts take place in public, at parties or outdoor events, but other posts were created in the private sphere then shared with the public via the Instagram pages. One photo shows a woman face down on a bed naked in the dark. The caption reads, “She’s busy, text later.” A similar photo shows a young woman lying on her side on a bed naked, with an emoji to cover her genitals. Another explicit photo is taken from the viewpoint of a man receiving oral sex from a female with his hand pushing down her head. It is obvious that these photos were taken in the private sphere, and the women were unaware they were being taken and then subsequently shared online to tens of thousands of people.
The privacy of the bedroom is also made public with the hashtags #Shacker and #ShackerSunday. These hashtags refer to a female college student who stays over at a male student’s room on a Saturday night after having sex. There are thousands of posts under these hashtags that include both photos and videos. These posts show women as unwanted problems for men to get rid of after sex. It demeans women into nothing more than a submissive sex toy to be used for the pleasure of men—men who dispose of them immediately afterwards.
In addition to private photos, private videos are also shared on these Instagram sites. One video with over 9000 views is a “selfie” video taken by a male college student. He is in bed shirtless with music playing in the background. He pans the video to show one female college student lying face down next to him with her panties exposed. He then moved the video to his other side where there is another female college student lying face down next to him topless. The caption reads, “Two sorority girls are better than one.” These women are not only unaware the video is being taken, but they are in fact in an unconscious state unable to even give their consent.
The theme of submissiveness of women is reified through many of the captions that accompany the social media posts. These texts place women in subordinate roles to men. “Saturdays are for the Boys” is a motto created by the Instagram site Bar Stool Sports, but many other sites, included Four Year Party and College Nationwide, have adopted this motto. It is geared toward collegiate communities and emphasizes the dominance of men and male bonding and the blatant disregard for women in general. #SaturdaysArefortheBoys is connected to over 85,000 Instagram posts. Similar hashtags like #CocksOnTop reiterate the theme of male dominance and female submission.
The celebration of male bonding at the expense of females plays out in many posts. Several photos show groups of male college students drinking, partying, and laughing with captions like, “Reliving last weekend with the boys,” and “When you see your boy taking home a slam.” Another post shows a sad puppy sitting at a bar with a drink in front of him with the caption, “Don’t worry, no one even remembers you tossing hog in that fat chick last night.” This post compares women to hogs and celebrates men acting as “dogs,” a term typically used to describe a man who is only concerned with sex.
Sometimes, these words and texts are more than just captions on an Instagram site. One post shows a jersey associated with a Fraternity, as the Greek letters are printed on it. The front of the jersey reads, “Crushing Puss since ‘69.” This post refers to women as only their sex organs (and in a demeaning way) and highlights male violent sexuality by choosing the word “crushing” to imply sex. The caption reads, “Aggressive. Tag a Sig Nu,” encouraging these sexually aggressive males to tag one another in the post as a way to show their approval.
Emphasis on a Young and White College Experience
The third and final theme uncovered is the emphasis on a young and white college experience. Diversity is rarely shown across all 600 posts, with most male and females being Caucasian and traditionally college-aged. Ageism is especially apparent and most of the posts that include older people tend to mock them. One video shows an older woman with wrinkles and gray hair drinking out of a flask and wearing green for St. Patrick’s Day. She is surrounded by young people at an outdoor party. The caption reads, “The fossil of a sorority girl celebrating St. Patrick’s Day.” A video along these lines features an older woman with wrinkles and gray hair at a bar with college-aged men. One of the young men is pouring beer down her shirt while the other is drinking it from her breasts. The captions reads, “Grandma’s boob luge, too.”
There is an idea across these age-related posts that older people were more valuable when they were younger and they yearn to reclaim those college years. One post shows a photo taken in the 1970s of a group of college-aged women on the beach in swimsuits. The caption states, “Your mom used to kill a bikini.” Older men are also subjected to this mockery. One video shows a man with a white beard dancing behind a young female. It is evident by her face that his attention is unwanted, and there is laughter in the background. The caption reads, “When alumni go back to undergrad bars,” implying this man is trying to relive his college experience, but he is being rejected. Another video shows an older man with white hair and wrinkles dancing behind a college girl. This video is also shown in mockery and the caption says, “Get it gramps.”
In addition to discrediting the non-traditionally aged college student experience, these posts discredit a non-white experience. Out of all 600 posts, only two showed a non-white college experience. These were the “girl of the day” posts mentioned earlier that feature an attractive college girl for males to gaze upon. Two of these posts featured non-white women, but they were still shown as sexual objects. Diversity among college students is completely ignored across both Four Year Party and College Nationwide.
One video post does address the issue of race, but in a mockery similar to the age-related posts. This video shows an older, overweight, black, female employee at a bar. Young white men are dancing and partying around her when one of the men pushes his face in between her breasts. Everyone starts laughing and cheering and the accompanying caption says, “Clueless to what he just experienced.” This sexual experience is not celebrated as they are with the posts that feature white men pushing their faces into the breasts of young white women. In fact, this posts suggests unfamiliarity with non-whites and does so in a mocking manner. It is also of note to notice that one of the few black figures in these posts is a bar employee, also bringing to light power imbalances and class issues.
Social media use can have major impacts on young people’s construction of self, especially with regard to gender, sexuality, and identity (Garcia-Gómez, 2017). This essay argues that certain Instagram sites geared toward college students are perpetuating gendered injustices and inequalities through their photo and video posts. Through a textual analysis of Four Year Party and College Nationwide, themes indicating this problematic situation were uncovered. These themes are: objectification of female college students, submissiveness of female college students, and emphasis on a young, white collegiate experience.
On both Instagram sites, female college students are portrayed as objects to be gazed upon by their male counterparts. They are pictured as sexualized and nameless objects of desire with no identity or personality of their own. More concretely, their bodies are shown as physical objects to be used by men. Women’s breasts and buttocks are used as funnels and koozies for alcohol, message boards to write mottos and sayings, and decorated gifts to be given, received, and used by males.
Female college students are shown as submissive to male college students. They are photographed in submissive poses lying on their backs or their stomachs. They are also subjected to physical and sexual aggression and violence through slapping, groping, and forceful sexual advances. Female privacy is frequently violated on these sites as photos and videos are taken of naked and unconscious women and then posted online for all to view. Masculinity and male bonding are celebrated and encouraged, especially at the expense of women.
The final theme discusses the emphasis on a young and white college experience. All of the women deemed sexually attractive are Caucasian and traditionally college-aged. In fact, older people are frequently mocked when placed in traditionally collegiate situations like parties, beaches, or bars. People of color are rarely shown and when they are they are also mocked or looked at as “other.”
A postfeminist reading of these Instagram sites is valuable. Social media platforms can serve as sites of potential resistance for women and other marginalized groups, and give users power to create their own content. Social media platforms can allow women to construct their own gendered identities and provide sites for women to promote and celebrate their sexuality and femininity. Much of the content on Four Year Party and College Nationwide is submitted by female users, thus promoting a sense of postfeminist empowerment. However, the addition of male commenting, editing, and redistributing replaces this empowerment with the constraints and prejudices of the male gaze. The content submitted by male users without female consent are especially problematic and dangerous.
These Instagram sites are geared toward college students. These are the young men and women who will potentially be in successful, powerful, and even leadership roles in our society going forward. It is disheartening and frankly fear-inducing that these themes of gendered and racial prejudices are so evident on social media sites with tens of thousands of college student followers. Not only are these prejudices and injustices tolerated, but they are celebrated. These types of social media platforms should be more closely examined and analyzed to better understand the challenges facing women and people of color in the collegiate setting and to try to encourage young men to leave these practices behind.
Limitations and Future Research
While this study offers unique insight into the popular narrative of the collegiate lifestyle via social media, it is, of course, subject to limitations. The two Instagram sites chosen are dominated by white, heterosexual users, as reflected in the user-generated content, likes, and comments. A limitation of this study is its inability to understand how marginalized groups understand and interpret these social media sites. Conducting this analysis using a queer lens, for example, could provide valuable and perhaps contrasting conclusions that unfortunately are not present in the current research.
Future research on this topic would benefit from different qualitative methods. It would be interesting to conduct interviews or focus groups with college students of different ages, races, and genders to gauge their reaction to these pages. Is there resistance to these type of sites? If so, where is that resistance stemming from? Having alternative views and opinions to the ones expressed on these sites would prove beneficial in helping to shut down the gendered and racial stereotypes and prejudices these social media sites perpetuate and celebrate.
Further research on this topic would also be beneficial in creating and deploying pedagogical techniques to combat these gendered prejudices. Media educators should have open discussions about gendered issues in their classrooms to promote constructive discussion among both male and female college students. Topics like sexuality, male domination, and female body image can be taboo, and understandably, many educators avoid these issues in their classroom discussions. However, educators have the power to create safe and non-judgmental spaces where these conversations can happen. This is especially important for communications students who will go on to create and distribute media of all different kinds. Communications students now will determine the media climate in the future, and it is our job as media educators to make sure they are equipped with the tools and knowledge needed to fight for equality.
Declaration of conflicting interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
[Update] Crisis Review: The Top 20 Crises Of 2018 (Part 1 Of 3) | faceit major 2018 – Vietnamnhanvan
View Part Two of our 2018 Crisis Review here
View Part Three of our 2018 Crisis Review here
1. Facebook PR Fail
In November, the New York Times published an article that provided a comprehensive overview (based on interviews with more than 50 people) of Facebook’s response to the criticism the company faced after a plague of fake news that infected the site—and the political arena—during the presidential election of 2016.
As we explained in an analysis that month, the Times detailed the hiring of public affairs firm Definers, attempts to link Facebook critics to Jewish financier George Soros and suggestions that the criticism of Facebook was itself motivated by anti-Semitism. The newspaper’s reporting raised four particularly troublesome issues around Facebook’s public relations activities.
- First, a stark contrast between the company’s external promises of transparency and its pledge to do better, and its actions in the political realm: efforts to deceive lawmakers about the true extent of Russian interference and attempts to smear its critics;
- Second, Facebook’s senior executives were motivated by a desire to pander to the Trump administration and others on the right;
- Third, the Times story also revealed that Facebook had been paying Definers to pump out its own fake news and use alt-right media channels to spread misinformation;
- And finally—and most troublingly—the Times story highlighted a smear campaign undertaken against Jewish financier George Soros.
It was particularly disheartening to learn that Facebook public relations and public affairs execs, rather than warning company leadership about what would happen when the smear campaign inevitably came to light, were active participants in the campaign. Indeed, within days Facebook communications VP Elliott Schrage had taken the fall for the company’s actions, losing his job.
Richard Levick, CEO of crisis communications firm Levick, points out that the Definers incident was merely one example of a broader failure to address the “fake news” issue and others we raised in our crisis review last year. Says Levick, “Mark Zuckerberg promised to ‘fix Facebook’ and keeps telling us they are getting their house in order. But instead, with few exceptions, most of what we get from Facebook are small changes and lots of denials.
“It’s never easy, but as communications professionals our job is to help clients do the right thing, never more so than in a crisis. Facebook’s recent public posturing, on the other hand, is sadly reminiscent of the obstructionist tactics deployed a generation ago by the US tobacco industry – deny and delay. Every time Facebook feigns shock that its platform is being used for nefarious purposes, it strains its own credibility.
“If the testimony (or failure to testify) to the US Congress and the British Parliament and more is any indication, Facebook believes they are smarter than we are—a blunder begging for more regulation globally. Retaining an army of lobbyists and public relations specialists can only take Facebook so far. Consultants are not magicians. Instead of asking them to ‘put lipstick on a pig,’ Facebook should be arming them with solutions, and, dare I say it, visionary leadership for the information age.”
Our own analysis, meanwhile, focused on the limits of applying political techniques in the corporate realm. That often fails for two reasons.
First, politics is tribal in a way that the corporate world is not. Individuals who find their values aligned with specific political parties or individual candidates have a high tolerance for techniques that are ethically questionable (dishonesty, or personal attacks) if they are seen as a mutually agreed upon cause. Relatively few people have the same level of affinity for a corporation or its issues.
And second, politics is a zero-sum game. Candidates can attack each other in ways that turn off vast swathes of the electorate. As long as you are more successful persuading people not to vote for your opponent than he or she is at persuading them not to vote for you, you can win. If you engage in the same approach with a business rival, all you achieve is a smaller market where nobody trusts you or your competitors (which is why airlines don’t spend a lot of their marketing budget trying to suggest that their competitors are unsafe).
The Facebook campaign illustrates these differences perfectly.— PH
2. Nissan’s Boss Gets Arrested
Even by Japan’s storied standards of corporate malfeasance, the scandal at Nissan Motor deserves special mention — combining, as it does, financial wrongdoing, political intrigue and hubris to almost unparalleled effect. Now relegated to a tiny cell in Tokyo, former Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn sits at the heart of the affair, arrested more than three months ago and charged this month with understating his compensation by more than $80m over eight years, and causing Nissan to make payments to the company of a Saudi Arabian friend.
Unlike recent crises in Japan, says H+K Strategies crisis comms practice leader Tim Luckett, “this was personal rather than corporate misconduct – political as well as financial.” As Luckett notes, the scandal cames after the imperious Ghosn oversaw Nissan’s turnaround and the creation of its high-profile alliance with Renault and, more recently, Mitsubishi.
“The first problem was the vagueness in the initial response [from Nissan] — while this was clearly a corporate governance issue, Nissan only belatedly approved setting up an advisory committee of independent directors well after the scandal broke,” explained Luckett. “But perhaps we don’t know the real back story.”
That was compounded by several media scoops that put Nissan further onto the back foot, with the company also taking a cautious approach because of the legal dimension. All of which, says Luckett, created the impression that Nissan may have had “something to hide.”
Among the lessons are this: corporates clearly need to be prepared for dealing with inappropriate or illegal behaviour even at the most senior leadership level: “It begs the (somewhat rhetorical) question — what questions were actually asked?”
Ultimately, concludes Luckett, “corporates who fail to adopt basic governance structures will endear little sympathy when alleged persistent wrongdoing is finally called out.
“There is no doubt that further questions will arise not just about Nissan’s corporate culture, but about the country’s corporate governance standards in general. However, as he awaits his fate behind bars, the ultimate judge in all of this, the share price, remains pretty much intact (as does Nissan’s global comms strategy) — so perhaps the real truth is that Nissan actually knows far more than they’ve bothered to communicate. I suspect this one will run and run.” — AS
3. Is J&J’s Credo Still Credible?
For more than three decades, when public relations people were asked to identify the gold standard of effective crisis management they would—almost unanimously—point to Johnson & Johnson’s handling of the Tylenol crisis of 1982, when the pharmaceutical giant turned to its credo (“We believe our first responsibility is to the patients, doctors and nurses, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services”) to guide its actions after it became apparent that its products had been tampered with.
But revelations over the past couple of years must have led even the staunchest admirers of the Tylenol case study to question whether J&J’s commitment to its credo is real—with evidence suggesting that even back in 1982, the company was acting like dozens of other large corporations that discovered a link between their products and serious side effects.
“In 1982, Dr Daniel Cramer found the first statistical link between the talc used in baby powder and ovarian cancer,” says the website Consumer Advocacy News. “Concerned by this discovery, executives from J&J met with Dr Cramer to discuss his findings and convince him that talc was perfectly safe. Throughout the next decade, mounting studies linking baby powder and ovarian cancer forced the company to mount its own investigation in the 1990s. An independent consultant advised the company not to continue to defend the safety of talc and either to place a warning on its products or to replace the talc in its products with cornstarch. The company ignored his advice.”
That story was published two years ago, and could be dismissed by company executives as the biased view of plaintiffs’ attorneys engaging in thousands of lawsuits against J&J. But in December of last year, Reuters published an investigative report that confirmed much of that narrative and added damaging detail—prompting a stock selloff that erased about $40 billion from J&J’s market value in a single day.
J&J has already been on the losing side of several jury verdicts on the issue—one for $4.69 billion—and faced thousands of additional lawsuits—but continues to deny any responsibility. Responding to the Reuters story, J&J said it was “one-sided, false, and inflammatory.” Confronted with a similar New York Times story days later, the company was similarly defiant: “The decades-long record overwhelmingly shows that our talc is safe, and J&J has engaged with great transparency in open discussions on the safety of its talc with scientists and regulators.”
The company further responded with ads and a website that provides a longer critique of the negative coverage, as well as noting that “of all the verdicts against Johnson & Johnson that we have already appealed, not one has been upheld.” And not surprisingly, J&J’s current chief executive Michael Gorsky has invoked the Tylenol history as evidence of the company’s good character (during an appearance on CNBC’s “Mad Money”).
The thoroughness and consistency of the company’s response has earned it some plaudits from crisis experts. Thom Weidlich at CrisisResponsePro says, “All in all, J&J’s quick and multifaceted response has been impressive.”
Erik Bernstein, of Bernstein Crisis Management, meanwhile notes: “Making statements about legal battles is always difficult because you’re limited in what you can say. This is the standard ‘we will appeal because we’re right’ message that typically follows a decision against any party, but it also included a healthy dose of compassion up front. This made it effective in communicating two points: first that J&J does care about the negative situation being experienced by its accusers, and second that it has what it believes to be proof that the claims against its brand are misplaced.”
The jury is (literally) still out on the facts of the case.—PH
4. Marriott Tops The Data Breach Charts
We have included data breaches in our crisis reviews for the past several years—last year Equifax made our top 15—and it seems that companies and consumers are almost as tired of these stories as we are. “This increasingly common scenario is itself proving to be a challenge for communicators,” says Tim Luckett, global crisis practice leader at Hill+Knowlton. “‘Breach fatigue’ is real—both for individuals affected, and the companies involved.”
This year’s biggest story involved Marriott (in the wake of its merger with Starwood), which recorded the second largest breach in cyber security history, exposing some 380 million records, although we could have included data breaches at Facebook (50 million), Quora (100 million) and Ticketmaster, all of which saw sensitive information accessed by attackers.
(NordVPN says more than one billion people’s data was compromised in 2018, with British Airways, Google and Uber making the virtual personal network provider’s list.)
“Strict reporting guidelines (including GDPR in the EU, and comprehensive Federal and State laws in the US), mean that businesses are frequently reporting breaches—potential, actual, large or small,” says Luckett “‘The boy who cried wolf’ has become ‘the brand that cried woe.’ So it’s a challenge for the likes of Marriott when serious breaches involving potentially sensitive data (passport and credit card details, amongst other information) occur, to encourage affected individuals to actually take notice, and more importantly, take action.
“Breach fatigue can also be a significant challenge for brands that are so used to the standard playbook approach of ‘announce, reiterate the commitment to cyber security and offer credit monitoring.’ Communicators need to remember that ‘affected individuals’ are people: the elderly person who may not understand web monitoring, the millennial who has a highly sensitive junk mail filter, or the online shopper who discards the 10th identical ‘cyber incident notification’ email.”
Having said all that, Luckett believes Marriott’s response was strong, including a comprehensive website, media campaign (as required by law), credit monitoring and call center. “In other words, they ticked the necessary boxes. But with an increasing number of breaches, and more of us disclosing private information online, organisations have a greater responsibility to protect that data, and if the worst does happen, actively help customers to navigate what they’re meant to do.”
And even with these events becoming commonplace, it’s important for companies to remember that they are being judged. “More Americans expect breaches than ever before and see them as a test of a company’s ability to be responsive and transparent,” says Brent Shelton, of technology PR firm Bospar.—PH
5. Huawei’s CFO Gets Arrested
That two of our top five crises including corporate leaders being arrested might point to a trend, but the situation concerning Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou is sufficiently removed from Carlos’ Ghosn’s fate at Nissan as to constitute a totally separate crisis scenario. One that is, furthermore, considerably complicated by the geopolitical opposition and security concerns that have bedevilled Huawei’s rapid rise over the past decade.
US authorities allege that Meng and Huawei violated Iran sanctions and may have made illegal transactions with HSBC. It is, says Signal Leadership Communication principal Bob Pickard, just the latest step in a “continuing saga” that has seen Huawei attempt to reassure the world that it is not a proxy for the Chinese government.
At the same time, notes Pickard, Huawei has built a “world-class communications platform” in a short space of time, including a new corporate PR roster that includes BCW and Edelman. “The profile of the company’s brand has been growing fast, fuelled by cybersecurity fears concomitant with a massive marketing spend powering increasingly popular products which are driving the company’s unrelenting commercial success.”
Meng’s arrest, though, takes Huawei into “unchartered territory,” says Pickard, where it simply finds itself unable to shape the narrative to its advantage. “Regardless of its world-class issues management and crisis communications capability, it’s not calling the comms shots in the news as the Chinese and North American governments on the other side duke it out through the state-supported media and information platforms at their disposal.
“As China’s national champion multinational, Huawei is now a red flag of warning in most of the Anglosphere countries of China’s rise as a technologically advanced superpower that many are afraid could surpass and dominate a divided and declining West, where governments may be reaching the conclusion that if they don’t stop Huawei now — stop Chinese encroachment into the Western telecoms infrastructure — they never will.”
Huawei’s response to the arrest has been fairly tepid, punctuated by a rare appearance from CEO Ren Zhengfei. “Probably the best public relations and marketing communications can’t overcome the realpolitik situation Huawei finds itself in,” says Pickard. “Even rolling out their biggest PR gun — the reclusive Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei who almost never speaks to the media — smacked of desperation as he heaped praise on Donald Trump and thanked Canada’s justice system for the kind treatment of his daughter who remains under house arrest.”
6. Oxfam’s Sexual Misconduct Scandal
There’s something particularly sad about a charity hitting the headlines for the wrong reasons, but even organisations that overwhelmingly have their organisational and volunteer hearts in the right place can get it catastrophically wrong.
So it was with Oxfam, the highly-respected, 77-year-old international aid organisation, when it emerged last February that it was facing multiple allegations of sexual misconduct over many years by its workers – including paying sex workers, some of whom may have been underage, in Haiti and Chad. The crisis escalated quickly, severely damaging Oxfam’s reputation and its relationship with one of its biggest donors, the UK government.
Brendan May, chairman of sustainability consultancy Robertsbridge, who has worked with many NGOs around the world, said the charity’s inexperience in handling negative media coverage was evident from the moment the crisis broke: “It was clear that Oxfam was caught like a rabbit in the headlines, completely clueless on how to handle the growing seriousness of the accusations being levelled against it.”
He says there was a period during the crisis where Oxfam seemed to be turning to the right tactics: “The highlight was using its global executive director, the hugely impressive Ugandan politician Winnie Byanyima. Her obviously sincere apologies, an exclusive TV interview and a compelling piece to camera gave believers in the sector’s work some much needed confidence at a pivotal moment. Byanyima’s authentic voice was also vital in reassuring donors that the charity was taking the magnitude of events seriously, particularly essential in shoring up fragile political support in the UK and beyond.”
Unfortunately, much of that good work was undone when Oxfam’s UK chief executive gave an interview to the Guardian saying the attacks were out of proportion and defending the claims on the basis it was not as if Oxfam had “murdered babies in their cots”. “It quickly became clear he couldn’t survive this astonishing blooper,” says May. “It greatly undermined the progress Oxfam had begun to make with a concrete plan of action to root out abuse and have all allegations properly investigated.”
May says the episode did huge damage to the development movement, and gave unnecessary fuel to those on the political spectrum who would rather the UK did not help developing countries at all. “As reputational crises go, it therefore doesn’t get much worse. And a stark reminder that if your chief executive is going to give media interviews, especially on a topic as sensitive as this, never ever allow them near a journalist without the right training,” he says.
“Oxfam is full of excellent dedicated programme staff. Its communications functions were found wanting at a critical time, and it’s a reminder that charities need to invest properly in communications excellence, just like any other brand.” — MPS
7. Sir Martin Sorrell Uncouples From WPP
When a figurehead as high-profile (and divisive) as Sir Martin Sorrell left the holding company he founded 33 years previously, and not entirely on his own terms, it was never going to be anything but seismic.
The announcement that the most powerful man in the agency world was suddenly exiting WPP may have been made at 10pm on a Saturday night when much of the London industry was enjoying a warm April evening, but it was anything but buried news: the shockwaves and analysis (including in this publication) rolled on for weeks.
The news that WPP was conducting an internal investigation into Sorrell’s conduct and behaviour was followed by a “sex, cash and bullying” Financial Times story that included Sorrell’s former chauffeur as a source. That piece, which ultimately precipitated his departure, is still the subject of dispute: Sorrell continues to miss no opportunity to bombastically rubbish its content.
And opinion is still divided on whether Sorrell’s departure was the only possible outcome as things came to a head, or whether it’s a decision WPP’s board will live to regret.
At Lansons, CEO Tony Langham doesn’t think either the corporation or its founder handled themselves with grace: “Martin Sorrell’s sordid exit from WPP is surely the saddest crisis of 2018. Genius entrepreneur Sir Martin should not have left the business he made, under a cloud. WPP should not have created an enemy of Sir Martin, as he knows where many of the bodies are buried. Yet that’s what happened. Both sides seem to have put pride above dignity. And in seeking to protect their reputations, both sides damaged their own reputations more than was necessary.”
Langham says that from the sidelines, it appeared that WPP fought the dirtiest. “Leaks about the chauffeur, the investigation and visits to brothels could hardly have come from Sir Martin. WPP seemed to think that just because they owned information that they could leak with impunity. They were wrong.
“In fact, it’s Sir Martin that has emerged the least damaged. He has his shiny new business, S4 – and a business starting in 2018 is going to be much better placed than a business put together over the last 30 years. And of course, the people he’s made money for in the past, aren’t worried by his supposed misdemeanours.”
In contrast, says Langham, the new WPP team led by Mark Read has the mountainous challenge of turning the WPP oil tanker around. “And Sir Martin is free to undermine them from the sidelines. It’s entirely possible that WPP will also appear in the crisis list of 2019 or 2020.”
At Hanover Communications, deputy MD of corporate Gary Cleland, agrees that the real crisis for WPP, regardless of how Sorrell’s exit panned out at the time, is still to come: “The actual departure of Sir Martin was handled, in the circumstances, as well as could be expected. The challenge for WPP will come in the years ahead.
“Amid speculation over the efficacy of large holding groups, Sir Martin personified WPP and gave it a coherent identity. In his absence, the challenge for the business will be in creating a binding identity for itself that is coherent to its employees as well as its clients.” — MPS
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[FULLMATCH] DE_NUKE | NAVI VS G2 ESPORTS | PGL MAJOR STOCKHOLM 2021
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